Additive manufacturing methods and modelling approaches: a critical review

  • H. Bikas
  • P. Stavropoulos
  • G. ChryssolourisEmail author
Open Access


Additive manufacturing is a technology rapidly expanding on a number of industrial sectors. It provides design freedom and environmental/ecological advantages. It transforms essentially design files to fully functional products. However, it is still hampered by low productivity, poor quality and uncertainty of final part mechanical properties. The root cause of undesired effects lies in the control aspects of the process. Optimization is difficult due to limited modelling approaches. Physical phenomena associated with additive manufacturing processes are complex, including melting/solidification and vaporization, heat and mass transfer etc. The goal of the current study is to map available additive manufacturing methods based on their process mechanisms, review modelling approaches based on modelling methods and identify research gaps. Later sections of the study review implications for closed-loop control of the process.


Additive manufacturing Process control Process mechanisms Modelling methods 


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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering and AeronauticsUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  2. 2.Department of Aeronautical Studies, Hellenic Air Force AcademyDekelia Air-Force BaseAthensGreece

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