Influence of milling modes and tool postures on the milled surface for multi-axis finish ball-end milling



This work concentrated on the machined surface properties produced by the multi-axis ball-end milling process in order to enhance the high-performance application of multi-axis ball-end milling technology. The cutting speed of the engaged cutting edges and machining characteristics under various inclination angles were analyzed. The effects of inclination angles on the machined surface hardness, residual stresses, surface textures, topographies, and roughness were investigated under up-milling and down-milling conditions. Under up-milling condition, the machined surface hardness with regard to various tilt angles are larger than the ones under corresponding lead angles, and the variations of surface hardness with increasing lead angles are not apparent. In down-milling condition, double-peaks shape appears in the changing curve of surface hardness with increasing tilt and lead angles. The residual stresses present the overall trend of firstly increasing, then decreasing, and finally increasing with the increasing tilt angle from −45 to 45°. The surface residual stresses in both feed and cross-feed directions firstly decrease, and then increase with the increasing lead angle. Under both up-milling and down-milling, the compressive residual stresses significantly appear at the tool inclination angles near 0° due to extrusion action of the cutting edges close to tool tip and the low effective cutting speed. For down-milling condition, the surface textures are approximately parallel with the feed direction when using tilt angles with large values, and are approximately perpendicular to feed direction under varying lead angles. The apparent machining marks under negative tilt angles with relatively larger absolute values and obvious regular surface patterns corresponding to positive tilt angles could be observed. More surface pits and burrs and circular arc textures probably appear under small tilt angles and lead angles near 0°.


Surface hardness Surface residual stresses Surface textures Surface topographies Surface roughness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Camuscu N (2006) Effect of cutting speed on the performance of Al2O3 based ceramic tools in turning nodular cast iron. Mater Des 27(10):997–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhong Y, Zhou J, Chen T (2002) Determination of cutter orientation for five-axis sculptured surface machining with a filleted-end cutter. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 20(10):735–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yan H, Hua J, Shivpuri R (2007) Flow stress of AISI H13 die steel in hard machining. Mater Des 28(1):272–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Devillez A, Le Coz G, Dominiak S, Dudzinski D (2011) Dry machining of Inconel 718, workpiece surface integrity. J Mater Process Tech 211(10):1590–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kannan S, Kishawy HA, Deiab I (2009) Cutting forces and TEM analysis of the generated surface during machining metal matrix composites. J Mater Process Tech 209(5):2260–2269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lu C (2008) Study on prediction of surface quality in machining process. J Mater Process Tech 205(1–3):439–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pusavec F, Hamdi H, Kopac J, Jawahir IS (2011) Surface integrity in cryogenic machining of nickel based alloy-Inconel 718. J Mater Process Tech 211(4):773–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li JL, Jing LL, Chen M (2009) An FEM study on residual stresses induced by high-speed end-milling of hardened steel SKD11. J Mater Process Tech 209(9):4515–4520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ginting A, Nouari M (2009) Surface integrity of dry machined titanium alloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49(3–4):325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Junz Wang JJ, Zheng MY (2003) On the machining characteristics of H13 tool steel in different hardness states in ball end milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 22(11–12):855–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alrashdan A, Bataineh O, Shbool M (2014) Multi-criteria end milling parameters optimization of AISI D2 steel using genetic algorithm. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 73(5–8):1201–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buj-Corral I, Vivancos-Calvet J, Domínguez-Fernández A (2012) Surface topography in ball-end milling processes as a function of feed per tooth and radial depth of cut. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 53(1):151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chevrier P, Tidu A, Bolle B, Cezard P, Tinnes JP (2003) Investigation of surface integrity in high speed end milling of a low alloyed steel. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43(11):1135–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Axinte DA, Dewes RC (2002) Surface integrity of hot work tool steel after high speed milling-experimental data and empirical models. J Mater Process Tech 127(3):325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jung TS, Yang MY, Lee KJ (2005) A new approach to analyzing machined surfaces by ball-end milling, part I: formulation of characteristic lines of cut remainder. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 25(9–10):833–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jung TS, Yang MY, Lee KJ (2005) A new approach to analyzing machined surfaces by ball-end milling, part II: roughness prediction and experimental verification. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 25(9–10):841–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin Y, McHugh KM, Zhou Y, Lavernia EJ (2006) Microstructure and hardness of spray-formed chromium-containing steel tooling. Scr Mater 55(7):581–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xie J, Tamaki J (2007) Parameterization of micro-hardness distribution in granite related to abrasive machining performance. J Mater Process Tech 186(1–3):253–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shin HJ, Yoo YT (2008) Microstructural and hardness investigation of hot-work tool steels by laser surface treatment. J Mater Process Tech 201(1–3):342–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Radziejewska J, Skrzypek SJ (2009) Microstructure and residual stresses in surface layer of simultaneously laser alloyed and burnished steel. J Mater Process Tech 209(4):2047–2056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guu YH (2005) AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process. Appl Surf Sci 242(3–4):245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ekmekci B (2007) Residual stresses and white layer in electric discharge machining (EDM). Appl Surf Sci 253(23):9234–9240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liew PJ, Yan J, Kuriyagawa T (2013) Experimental investigation on material migration phenomena in micro-EDM of reaction-bonded silicon carbide. Appl Surf Sci 276:731–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ally S, Spelt JK, Papini M (2012) Prediction of machined surface evolution in the abrasive jet micro-machining of metals. Wear 292–293:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barakchi Fard MJ, Feng H-Y (2008) Effect of tool tilt angle on machining strip width in five-axis flat-end milling of free-form surfaces. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 44(3–4):211–222Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aspinwall D, Dewes R, Ng EG, Sage C, Soo S (2007) The influence of cutter orientation and workpiece angle on machinability when high-speed milling Inconel 718 under finishing conditions. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47(12–13):1839–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesNingboChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture of MOE, School of Mechanical EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanChina

Personalised recommendations