On a generalized approach to manufacturing energy efficiency

  • Apostolos Fysikopoulos
  • Georgios Pastras
  • Theocharis Alexopoulos
  • George ChryssolourisEmail author
Open Access


Energy efficiency has become a very significant factor, requiring its inclusion in the manufacturing decision-making attributes. This paper proposes a generalized approach to manufacturing energy efficiency. The basic element of the approach is the division of energy efficiency definition and study into four manufacturing levels, namely process, machine, production line, and factory. Process-level definitions are provided for the majority of manufacturing processes. A machine-level study indicates and solves difficulties, generated by the workpiece geometry, and points out the interaction with the process level through factors, such as the process time. Moreover, machine tool peripherals are responsible for a significant portion of the consumed energy, and classification based on the dependence of their consumption on process variables is required. Studies made on the production line and factory levels show that energy efficiency, at these levels, is heavily dependent on production planning and scheduling and can be improved through the appropriate utilization of machines, with the inclusion of shutdown and eco-modes. Finally, a case study is presented, showing that many of the difficulties towards the optimization of energy efficiency can be dealt with successfully, using the proposed generalized approach.


Energy efficiency Sustainable manufacturing Manufacturing processes Production planning Scheduling 


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© The Author(s) 2014

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Apostolos Fysikopoulos
    • 1
  • Georgios Pastras
    • 1
  • Theocharis Alexopoulos
    • 1
  • George Chryssolouris
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering and AeronauticsUniversity of PatrasPatraGreece

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