Advertisement

Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

, Volume 26, Issue 7, pp 1984–1999 | Cite as

Platelet-rich plasma in tendon-related disorders: results and indications

  • Giuseppe Filardo
  • Berardo Di MatteoEmail author
  • Elizaveta Kon
  • Giulia Merli
  • Maurilio Marcacci
Sports Medicine

Abstract

Purpose

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is currently the most exploited strategy in the clinical practice to provide a regenerative stimulus for tendon healing. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the available evidence on the treatment of the main tendon disorders where PRP is currently applied.

Methods

A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of PRP as a treatment for tendinopathies focusing on the following sites: Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, rotator cuff tendons, and lateral elbow tendons. The following inclusion criteria for relevant articles were used: clinical trials written in English language up to 21 June 2016 on the use of PRP in the conservative or surgical treatment of the aforementioned tendinopathies.

Results

The research identified the following clinical trials dealing with the application of PRP in the selected tendons: 19 papers on patellar tendon (6 being RCTs: 4 dealing with PRP conservative application and 2 surgical), 24 papers on Achilles tendon (4 RCTs: 3 conservative and 1 surgical), 29 on lateral elbow tendons (17 RCTs, all conservative), and 32 on rotator cuff (22 RCTs: 18 surgical and 3 conservative).

Conclusion

Patellar tendons seem to benefit from PRP injections, whereas in the Achilles tendon, PRP application is not indicated neither as a conservative approach nor as a surgical augmentation. Lateral elbow tendinopathy showed an improvement in most of the high-level studies, but the lack of proven superiority with respect to the more simple whole-blood injections still questions its use in the clinical practice. With regard to rotator cuff pathology, the vast majority of surgical RCTs documented a lack of beneficial effects, whereas there is still inconclusive evidence concerning its conservative application in rotator cuff disorders.

Level of evidence

Systematic review of level I–IV trials, Level IV.

Keywords

PRP Achilles tendon Patellar tendon Rotator cuff Lateral elbow Tendinopathy Growth factors Review 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present study was partially supported by PRRU (Emilia-Romagna Region/University of Bologna Project) 2010–2012.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

There is no funding source.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this kind of study (systematic review of literature) formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

167_2016_4261_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (56 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 57 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Andia I, Latorre PM, Gomez MC et al (2014) Platelet-rich plasma in the conservative treatment of painful tendinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies. Br Med Bull 110(1):99–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andriolo L, Di Matteo B, Kon E et al (2015) PRP augmentation for ACL reconstruction. Biomed Res Int. 2015:371746PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antuña S, Barco R, Martínez Diez JM et al (2013) Platelet-rich fibrin in arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears: a prospective randomized pilot clinical trial. Acta Orthop Belg 79(1):25–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barber FA, Hrnack SA, Snyder SJ et al (2011) Rotator cuff repair healing influenced by platelet-rich plasma construct augmentation. Arthroscopy 27(8):1029–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Behera P, Dhillon M, Aggarwal S et al (2015) Leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma versus bupivacaine for recalcitrant lateral epicondylar tendinopathy. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 23(1):6–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bergeson AG, Tashjian RZ, Greis PE et al (2012) Effects of platelet-rich fibrin matrix on repair integrity of at-risk rotator cuff tears. Am J Sports Med 40(2):286–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boswell SG, Cole BJ, Sundman EA et al (2012) Platelet-rich plasma: a milieu of bioactive factors. Arthroscopy 28(3):429–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brkljac M, Kumar S, Kalloo D et al (2015) The effect of platelet-rich plasma injection on lateral epicondylitis following failed conservative management. J Orthop 12(Suppl 2):S166–S170PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carr AJ, Murphy R, Dakin SG et al (2015) Platelet-rich plasma injection with arthroscopic acromioplasty for chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 43(12):2891–2897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castricini R, Longo UG, De Benedetto M et al (2011) Platelet-rich plasma augmentation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 39(2):258–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Charousset C, Zaoui A, Bellaiche L et al (2014) Are multiple platelet-rich plasma injections useful for treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy in athletes? A prospective study. Am J Sports Med 42(4):906–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Charousset C, Zaoui A, Bellaïche L et al (2014) Does autologous leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma improve tendon healing in arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears? Arthroscopy 30(4):428–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chaudhury S, de La Lama M, Adler RS et al (2013) Platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: sonographic assessment of tendon morphology and vascularity (pilot study). Skeletal Radiol 42(1):91–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Creaney L, Wallace A, Curtis M et al (2011) Growth factor-based therapies provide additional benefit beyond physical therapy in resistant elbow tendinopathy: a prospective, single-blind, randomised trial of autologous blood injections versus platelet-rich plasma injections. Br J Sports Med 45(12):966–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crescibene A, Napolitano M, Sbano R et al (2015) Infiltration of autologous growth factors in chronic tendinopathies. J Blood Transfus. 2015:924380PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dallaudière B, Pesquer L, Meyer P et al (2014) Intratendinous injection of platelet-rich plasma under US guidance to treat tendinopathy: a long-term pilot study. J Vasc Interv Radiol 25(5):717–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    de Almeida AM, Demange MK, Sobrado MF et al (2012) Patellar tendon healing with platelet-rich plasma: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 40(6):1282–1288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    De Carli A, Lanzetti RM, Ciompi A et al (2016) Can platelet-rich plasma have a role in Achilles tendon surgical repair? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 24(7):2231–2237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Jonge S, de Vos RJ, Weir A et al (2011) One-year follow-up of platelet-rich plasma treatment in chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 39(8):1623–1629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Vos RJ, Weir A, van Schie HT et al (2010) Platelet-rich plasma injection for chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 303(2):144–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deans VM, Miller A, Ramos J (2012) A prospective series of patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy treated with autologous-conditioned plasma injections combined with exercise and therapeutic ultrasonography. J Foot Ankle Surg 51(6):706–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Del Buono A, Oliva F, Osti L et al (2013) Metalloproteases and tendinopathy. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 3(1):51–57PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    DeLong JM, Russell RP, Mazzocca AD (2012) Platelet-rich plasma: the PAW classification system. Arthroscopy 28(7):998–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Di Benedetto P, Di Benedetto ED, Beltrame A et al (2016) Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with or without PrP: our experience. Acta Biomed 87(Suppl 1):75–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Di Matteo B, Filardo G, Kon E et al (2015) Platelet-rich plasma: evidence for the treatment of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy-a systematic review. Musculoskelet Surg. 99(1):1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dohan Ehrenfest DM, Bielecki T, Jimbo R et al (2012) Do the fibrin architecture and leukocyte content influence the growth factor release of platelet concentrates? An evidence-based answer comparing a pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) gel and a leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF). Curr Pharm Biotechnol 13(7):1145–1152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dohan Ehrenfest DM, Rasmusson L, Albrektsson T (2009) Classification of platelet concentrates: from pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) to leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF). Trends Biotechnol 27(3):158–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dragoo JL, Wasterlain AS, Braun HJ et al (2014) Platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for patellar tendinopathy: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 42(3):610–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ferrero G, Fabbro E, Orlandi D et al (2012) Ultrasound-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma in chronic Achilles and patellar tendinopathy. J Ultrasound 15(4):260–266PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Filardo G, Kon E, Della Villa S et al (2010) Use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of refractory jumper’s knee. Int Orthop 34(6):909–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Filardo G, Kon E, Di Matteo B et al (2014) Platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of refractory Achilles tendinopathy: results at 4 years. Blood Transfus. 12(4):533–540PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Filardo G, Kon E, Di Matteo B et al (2013) Platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy: clinical and imaging findings at medium-term follow-up. Int Orthop 37(8):1583–1589PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Filardo G, Kon E, Roffi A et al (2015) Platelet-rich plasma: why intra-articular? A systematic review of preclinical studies and clinical evidence on PRP for joint degeneration. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 23(9):2459–2474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Filardo G, Presti ML, Kon E et al (2010) Nonoperative biological treatment approach for partial Achilles tendon lesion. Orthopedics. 33(2):120–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Finnoff JT, Fowler SP, Lai JK et al (2011) Treatment of chronic tendinopathy with ultrasound-guided needle tenotomy and platelet-rich plasma injection. PM R. 3(10):900–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Flury M, Rickenbacher D, Schwyzer HK et al (2016) Does pure platelet-rich plasma affect postoperative clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair? A randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. doi: 10.1177/0363546516645518 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ford RD, Schmitt WP, Lineberry K et al (2015) A retrospective comparison of the management of recalcitrant lateral elbow tendinosis: platelet-rich plasma injections versus surgery. Hand (NY) 10(2):285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gautam VK, Verma S, Batra S et al (2015) Platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis: clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 23(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gaweda K, Tarczynska M, Krzyzanowski W (2010) Treatment of Achilles tendinopathy with platelet-rich plasma. Int J Sports Med 31(8):577–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Glanzmann MC, Audigé L (2015) Platelet-rich plasma for chronic lateral epicondylitis: Is one injection sufficient? Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 135(12):1637–1645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gosens T, Den Oudsten BL, Fievez E et al (2012) Pain and activity levels before and after platelet-rich plasma injection treatment of patellar tendinopathy: a prospective cohort study and the influence of previous treatments. Int Orthop 36(9):1941–1946PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gosens T, Peerbooms JC, van Laar W et al (2011) Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 39(6):1200–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guelfi M, Pantalone A, Vanni D et al (2015) Long-term beneficial effects of platelet-rich plasma for non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Foot Ankle Surg. 21(3):178–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gumina S, Campagna V, Ferrazza G et al (2012) Use of platelet-leukocyte membrane in arthroscopic repair of large rotator cuff tears: a prospective randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 94(15):1345–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hak A, Rajaratnam K, Ayeni OR et al (2015) A double-blinded placebo randomized controlled trial evaluating short-term efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in reducing postoperative pain after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a pilot study. Sports Health. 7(1):58–66PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hechtman KS, Uribe JW, Botto-vanDemden A et al (2011) Platelet-rich plasma injection reduces pain in patients with recalcitrant epicondylitis. Orthopedics. 34(2):92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ilhanli I, Guder N, Gul M (2015) Platelet-rich plasma treatment with physical therapy in chronic partial supraspinatus tears. Iran Red Crescent Med J 17(9):e23732PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jo CH, Kim JE, Yoon KS et al (2011) Does platelet-rich plasma accelerate recovery after rotator cuff repair? A prospective cohort study. Am J Sports Med 39(10):2082–2090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jo CH, Shin JS, Lee YG et al (2013) Platelet-rich plasma for arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears: a randomized, single-blind, parallel-group trial. Am J Sports Med 41(10):2240–2248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kaniki N, Willits K, Mohtadi NG et al (2014) A retrospective comparative study with historical control to determine the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma as part of nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Arthroscopy 30(9):1139–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Karaduman M, Okkaoglu MC, Sesen H et al (2016) Platelet-rich plasma versus open surgical release in chronic tennis elbow: A retrospective comparative study. J Orthop 13(1):10–14PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kaux JF, Bruyere O, Croisier JL et al (2015) One-year follow-up of platelet-rich plasma infiltration to treat chronic proximal patellar tendinopathies. Acta Orthop Belg 81(2):251–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kaux JF, Croisier JL, Bruyere O et al (2015) One injection of platelet-rich plasma associated to a submaximal eccentric protocol to treat chronic jumper’s knee. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 55(9):953–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kaux JF, Croisier JL, Forthomme B et al (2016) Using platelet-rich plasma to treat jumper’s knees: exploring the effect of a second closely-timed infiltration. J Sci Med Sport. 19(3):200–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kaux JF, Croisier JL, Léonard P et al (2014) Exuberant inflammatory reaction as a side effect of platelet-rich plasma injection in treating one case of tendinopathy. Clin J Sport Med 24(2):150–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kearney RS, Parsons N, Costa ML (2013) Achilles tendinopathy management: a pilot randomised controlled trial comparing platelet-rich plasma injection with an eccentric loading programme. Bone Joint Res 2(10):227–232PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kesikburun S, Tan AK, Yilmaz B et al (2013) Platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 41(11):2609–2616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Khaliq A, Khan I, Inam M et al (2015) Effectiveness of platelets rich plasma versus corticosteroids in lateral epicondylitis. J Pak Med Assoc 65(11 Suppl 3):S100–S104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kon E, Filardo G, Delcogliano M et al (2009) Platelet-rich plasma: new clinical application: a pilot study for treatment of jumper’s knee. Injury. 40(6):598–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kon E, Filardo G, Di Matteo B et al (2013) PRP for the treatment of cartilage pathology. Open Orthop J. 3(7):120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Krogh TP, Ellingsen T, Christensen R et al (2016) Ultrasound-guided injection therapy of Achilles tendinopathy with platelet-rich plasma or saline: a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. doi: 10.1177/0363546516647958 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Krogh TP, Fredberg U, Stengaard-Pedersen K et al (2013) Treatment of lateral epicondylitis with platelet-rich plasma, glucocorticoid, or saline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 41(3):625–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kujala UM, Sarna S, Kaprio J (2015) Cumulative incidence of Achilles tendon rupture and tendinopathy in male former elite athletes. Clin J Sport Med 15(3):133–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lebiedziński R, Synder M, Buchcic P et al (2015) A randomized study of autologous conditioned plasma and steroid injections in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Int Orthop 39(11):2199–2203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lian OB, Engebretsen L, Bahr R (2005) Prevalence of jumper’s knee among elite athletes from different sports: a cross-sectional study. Am J Sports Med 33(4):561–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Malavolta EA, Gracitelli ME, Ferreira Neto AA et al (2014) Platelet-rich plasma in rotator cuff repair: a prospective randomized study. Am J Sports Med 42(10):2446–2454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mautner K, Colberg RE, Malanga G et al (2013) Outcomes after ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections for chronic tendinopathy: a multicenter, retrospective review. PM R. 5(3):169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mautner K, Malanga GA, Smith J et al (2015) A call for a standard classification system for future biologic research: the rationale for new PRP nomenclature. PM R. 7(4 Suppl):S53–S59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McCarrel TM, Minas T, Fortier LA (2012) Optimization of leukocyte concentration in platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of tendinopathy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 94(19):e143(1–8)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mishra A, Pavelko T (2006) Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma. Am J Sports Med 34(11):1774–1778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mishra AK, Skrepnik NV, Edwards SG et al (2014) Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma for chronic tennis elbow: a double-blind, prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial of 230 patients. Am J Sports Med 42(2):463–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Montalvan B, Le Goux P, Klouche S et al (2016) Inefficacy of ultrasound-guided local injections of autologous conditioned plasma for recent epicondylitis: results of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with one-year follow-up. Rheumatology (Oxford) 55(2):279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Monto RR (2014) Platelet-rich plasma efficacy versus corticosteroid injection treatment for chronic severe plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int 35(4):313–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Murawski CD, Smyth NA, Newman H et al (2014) A single platelet-rich plasma injection for chronic midsubstance Achilles tendinopathy: a retrospective preliminary analysis. Foot Ankle Spec. 7(5):372–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Oloff L, Elmi E, Nelson J, Crain J (2015) Retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy: pretreatment and posttreatment correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical assessment. Foot Ankle Spec. 8(6):490–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Owens RF Jr, Ginnetti J, Conti SF et al (2011) Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes following platelet rich plasma injection for chronic midsubstance Achilles tendinopathy. Foot Ankle Int 32(11):1032–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Palacio EP, Schiavetti RR, Kanematsu M et al (2016) Effects of platelet-rich plasma on lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: prospective randomized controlled trial. Rev Bras Ortop. 51(1):90–95PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pandey V, Bandi A, Madi S et al (2016) Does application of moderately concentrated platelet-rich plasma improve clinical and structural outcome after arthroscopic repair of medium-sized to large rotator cuff tear? A randomized controlled trial. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2016.01.036 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Peerbooms JC, Sluimer J, Bruijn DJ et al (2010) Positive effect of an autologous platelet concentrate in lateral epicondylitis in a double-blind randomized controlled trial: platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection with a 1-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 38(2):255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Perdisa F, Filardo G, Di Matteo B et al (2014) Platelet rich plasma: a valid augmentation for cartilage scaffolds? A systematic review. Histol Histopathol 29(7):805–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Perut F, Filardo G, Mariani E et al (2013) Preparation method and growth factor content of platelet concentrate influence the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells. Cytotherapy. 15(7):830–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Peters JA, Zwerver J, Diercks RL et al (2016) Preventive interventions for tendinopathy: a systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 19(3):205–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Raeissadat SA, Rayegani SM, Hassanabadi H et al (2014) Is Platelet-rich plasma superior to whole blood in the management of chronic tennis elbow: one year randomized clinical trial. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 18(6):12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Raeissadat SA, Sedighipour L, Rayegani SM et al (2014) Effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) versus autologous whole blood on pain and function improvement in tennis elbow: a randomized clinical trial. Pain Res Treat. 2014:191525PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Randelli P, Arrigoni P, Ragone V et al (2011) Platelet rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prospective RCT study, 2-year follow-up. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 20(4):518–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Randelli PS, Arrigoni P, Cabitza P et al (2008) Autologous platelet rich plasma for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A pilot study. Disabil Rehabil 30(20–22):1584–1589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rha DW, Park GY, Kim YK et al (2013) Comparison of the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection and dry needling in rotator cuff disease: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 27(2):113–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Riley G (2004) The pathogenesis of tendinopathy. A molecular perspective. Rheumatology (Oxford) 43(2):131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rodeo SA, Delos D, Williams RJ et al (2012) The effect of platelet-rich fibrin matrix on rotator cuff tendon healing: a prospective, randomized clinical study. Am J Sports Med 40(6):1234–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ruiz-Moneo P, Molano-Muñoz J, Prieto E et al (2013) Plasma rich in growth factors in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Arthroscopy 29(1):2–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Salini V, Vanni D, Pantalone A et al (2015) Platelet Rich Plasma therapy in non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy: the efficacy is reduced in 60-years old people compared to young and middle-age individuals. Front Aging Neurosci. 10(7):228Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sánchez M, Anitua E, Azofra J et al (2007) Comparison of surgically repaired Achilles tendon tears using platelet-rich fibrin matrices. Am J Sports Med 35(2):245–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Scarpone M, Rabago D, Snell E et al (2013) Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma injection for rotator cuff tendinoplasty: a prospective open-label study. Glob Adv Health Med. 2(2):26–31PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Schepull T, Kvist J, Norrman H et al (2011) Autologous platelets have no effect on the healing of human Achilles tendon ruptures: a randomized single-blind study. Am J Sports Med 39(1):38–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Seijas R, Cuscó X, Sallent A et al (2016) Pain in donor site after BTB-ACL reconstruction with PRGF: a randomized trial. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 136(6):829–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tan XX, Ju HY, Yan W et al (2016) Autologous platelet lysate local injections for the treatment of refractory lateral epicondylitis. J Orthop Surg Res. 11:17PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tetschke E, Rudolf M, Lohmann CH et al (2015) Autologous proliferative therapies in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 94(9):696–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Thanasas C, Papadimitriou G, Charalambidis C et al (2011) Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous whole blood for the treatment of chronic lateral elbow epicondylitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Sports Med 39(10):2130–2134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tol JL, Spiezia F, Maffulli N (2012) Neovascularization in Achilles tendinopathy: have we been chasing a red herring? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20(10):1891–1894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tonk G, Kumar A, Gupta A (2014) Platelet rich plasma versus laser therapy in lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Indian J Orthop. 48(4):390–393PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Torricelli P, Fini M, Filardo G et al (2011) Regenerative medicine for the treatment of musculoskeletal overuse injuries in competition horses. Int Orthop 35(10):1569–1576PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tschon M, Fini M, Giardino R et al (2011) Lights and shadows concerning platelet products for musculoskeletal regeneration. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 1(3):96–107Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Vannini F, Di Matteo B, Filardo G et al (2014) Platelet-rich plasma for foot and ankle pathologies: a systematic review. Foot Ankle Surg. 20(1):2–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Verhaegen F, Brys P, Debeer P (2016) Rotator cuff healing after needling of a calcific deposit using platelet-rich plasma augmentation: a randomized, prospective clinical trial. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 25(2):169–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Vetrano M, Castorina A, Vulpiani MC et al (2013) Platelet-rich plasma versus focused shock waves in the treatment of jumper’s knee in athletes. Am J Sports Med 41(4):795–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Virchenko O, Aspenberg P (2006) How can one platelet injection after tendon injury lead to a stronger tendon after 4 weeks? Interplay between early regeneration and mechanical stimulation. Acta Orthop 77(5):806–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Volpi P, Quaglia A, Schoenhuber H et al (2010) Growth factors in the management of sport-induced tendinopathies: results after 24 months from treatment. A pilot study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 50(4):494–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    von Wehren L, Blanke F, Todorov A et al (2015) The effect of subacromial injections of autologous conditioned plasma versus cortisone for the treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. doi: 10.1007/s00167-015-3651-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wang A, McCann P, Colliver J et al (2015) Do postoperative platelet-rich plasma injections accelerate early tendon healing and functional recovery after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair? A randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 43(6):1430–1437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Weber SC, Kauffman JI, Parise C et al (2013) Platelet-rich fibrin matrix in the management of arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Am J Sports Med 41(2):263–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Weibrich G, Hansen T, Kleis W et al (2004) Effect of platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma on peri-implant bone regeneration. Bone 34(4):665–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Werthel JD, Pelissier A, Massin P et al (2014) Arthroscopic double row cuff repair with suture-bridging and autologous conditioned plasma injection: functional and structural results. Int J Shoulder Surg. 8(4):101–106PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wesner M, Defreitas T, Bredy H et al (2016) A pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma therapy for treating degenerative tendinopathies: a randomized control trial with synchronous observational cohort. PLoS ONE 11(2):e0147842PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yadav R, Kothari SY, Borah D (2015) Comparison of local injection of platelet rich plasma and corticosteroids in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis of humerus. J Clin Diagn Res 9(7):RC05-7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Zayni R, Thaunat M, Fayard JM et al (2015) Platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for chronic patellar tendinopathy: comparison of a single versus two consecutive injections. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 5(2):92–98PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Zhang Z, Wang Y, Sun J (2016) The effect of platelet-rich plasma on arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair: a clinical study with 12-month follow-up. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 50(2):191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zumstein MA, Rumian A, Lesbats V et al (2014) Increased vascularization during early healing after biologic augmentation in repair of chronic rotator cuff tears using autologous leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF): a prospective randomized controlled pilot trial. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 23(1):3–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Zumstein MA, Rumian A, Thélu CÉ et al (2016) SECEC Research Grant 2008 II: use of platelet- and leucocyte-rich fibrin (L-PRF) does not affect late rotator cuff tendon healing: a prospective randomized controlled study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 25(1):2–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Filardo
    • 1
  • Berardo Di Matteo
    • 2
    Email author
  • Elizaveta Kon
    • 1
  • Giulia Merli
    • 1
  • Maurilio Marcacci
    • 3
  1. 1.Nano-Biotechnology LaboratoryRizzoli Orthopaedic InstituteBolognaItaly
  2. 2.I Orthopaedic and Traumatologic ClinicRizzoli Orthopaedic InstituteBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Biomechanics and Technology Innovation LaboratoryRizzoli Orthopaedic InstituteBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations