Advertisement

Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

, Volume 23, Issue 12, pp 3550–3555 | Cite as

The association of dorsiflexion flexibility on knee kinematics and kinetics during a drop vertical jump in healthy female athletes

  • Philip MalloyEmail author
  • Alexander Morgan
  • Carolyn Meinerz
  • Christopher Geiser
  • Kristof Kipp
Knee

Abstract

Purpose

While previous studies have examined the association between ankle dorsiflexion flexibility and deleterious landing postures, it is not currently known how landing kinetics are influenced by ankle dorsiflexion flexibility. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ankle dorsiflexion flexibility was associated with landing kinematics and kinetics that have been shown to increase the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in female athletes.

Methods

Twenty-three female collegiate soccer players participated in a preseason screening that included the assessment of ankle dorsiflexion flexibility and lower-body kinematics and kinetics during a drop vertical jump task.

Results

The results demonstrated that females with less ankle dorsiflexion flexibility exhibited greater peak knee abduction moments (r = .442), greater peak knee abduction angles (r = .355), and less peak knee flexion angles (r = .385) during landing. The range of dorsiflexion flexibility for the current study was between 9° and 23° (mean = 15.0°; SD 3.9°).

Conclusion

Dorsiflexion flexibility may serve as a useful clinical measure to predict poor landing postures and external forces that have been associated with increased knee injury risk. Rehabilitation specialists can provide interventions aimed at improving dorsiflexion flexibility in order to ameliorate the impact of this modifiable factor on deleterious landing kinematics and kinetics in female athletes.

Level of evidence

II.

Keywords

ACL injury Ankle flexibility Kinematics Kinetics Landing mechanics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge support through the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Grant Number 8UL1TR000055.

Conflict of interest

No disclosures or conflicts of interest to report.

References

  1. 1.
    Agel J, Klossner D (2014) Epidemiologic review of collegiate ACL injury rates across 14 sports: National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system data 2004–2005 through 2011–2012. Br J Sports Med 48:560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alentorn-Geli E, Myer GD, Silvers HJ, Samitier G, Romero D et al (2009) Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players: part 1: mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 17: 705–729Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arendt E, Dick R (1995) Knee injury patterns among men and women in collegiate basketball and soccer: NCAA data and review literature. Am J Sports Med 23:694–701CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bell DR, Padua DA, Clark MA (2008) Muscle strength and flexibility characteristics of people displaying medial knee displacement. Arch Phys Med Rehab 89:1323–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Caulfield B, Garrett M (2004) Changes in ground reaction force during jumping in subjects with functional instability of the ankle joint. Clin Biomech 19:617–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Delahunt E, Monaghan K, Caulfild B (2006) Changes in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity in subjects with functional instability of the ankle joints during a single leg drop jump. J Orthop Res 24:1991–2000CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Faul F, Erdefelder E, Buchner A, Lang AG (2009) Statistical power analysis using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behav Res Methods 41:1149–1160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fong C, Blackburn JT, Norcross MF, McGrath M, Padua DA (2011) Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion and landing biomechanics. J Athl Train 46:5–10PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geiser CF, O’Connor KM, Earl JE (2010) Effects of isolated hip abductor fatigue on frontal plane knee mechanics. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:535–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Griffin LY, Albohm MJ, Arendt EA et al (2006) Understanding and preventing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a review of the Hunt Valley meeting, January 2005. Am J Sports Med 34:1512–1532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grood ES, Suntay WJ (1983) A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee. J Biomech Eng 105:136–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gwinn DE, Wilckens JH, McDevitt ER, Ross G, Kao T (2000) The relative incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury in men and women at the United States Naval Academy. Am J Sports Med 28:98–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hewett TE, Lindenfeld TN, Riccobene JV, Noyes FR (1999) The effect of neuromuscular training and the incidence of knee injury in female athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med 27:699–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR et al (2005) Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med 33:492–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hewett TE, Torg JS, Boden BP (2009) Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism. Br J Sports Med 43:417–422PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hootman JM, Dick R, Agel J (2007) Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. J Athl Train 42:311–319PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ishida T, Yamanaka M, Takeda N, Aoki Y (2014) Knee rotation associated with dynamic knee valgus and toe direction. Knee 21:563–566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kristianslund E, Faul O, Myklebust G, Krosshaug T (2014) Sidestep cutting technique and knee abduction loading: implications for ACL prevention exercises. Br J Sports Med 48:779–783CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Levine JW, Kiapour AM, Quatman CE, Wordeman SC, Goel VK, Hewett TE, Demetropoulus CK (2013) Clinically relevant injury patterns after an anterior cruciate ligament injury provide insight into injury mechanisms. Am J Sports Med 41:385–395PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Macrum E, Bell DR, Boling M, Lewek M, Padua D (2012) Effect of limiting ankle-dorsifleixon range of motion on lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation patterns during a squat. J Sports Rehabil 21:144–150Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mandelbaum BR, Silvers HJ, Watanabe DS et al (2005) Effectiveness of a neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program in preventing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: 2-year follow up. Am J Sports Med 33:1003–1010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Markolf KL, Burchfield DM, Shapiro MM, Shepard MF, Finerman GAM, Slauterbeck JL (1995) Combined knee loading states that generate high anterior cruciate ligament forces. J Orthop Res 13:930–935CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mauntel TC, Begalle RL, Cram TR, Frank BS, Hirth CJ, Blackburn T, Padua DA (2013) The effects of lower extremity muscle activation and passive range of motion on single leg squat performance. J Strength Cond Res 27:1813–1823CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Braekken IH, Skjolberg A, Olsen OE, Bahr R (2003) Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female team handball players: a prospective intervention study over three seasons. Clin J Sports Med 13:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Quatman CCE, Kiapour AM, Demetrropoulus CK, Kiapour A, Wordeman SC, Levine JW, Goel VK, Hewett TE (2014) Preferential loading of the ACL compared with the MCL during landing: a novel sim approach yields multiplanar mechanisms of dynamic valgus during ACL injury. Am J Sports Med 42:177–186PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Padua DA, Bell DR, Clark MA (2012) Neuromuscular characteristics of individuals displaying excessive medial knee displacement. J Athl Train 47:525–536PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sigward SM, Ota S, Powers CM (2008) Predictors of frontal plane knee excursion during a drop land in young female soccer players. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 38:661–667CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stevenson JH, Beattie CS, Schwartz JB, Busconi BD (2014) Assessing the effectiveness of neuromuscular training programs in reducing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med. doi: 10.1177/0363546514523388 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Withrow TJ, Huston LJ, Wojyts EM, Ashton-Miller JA (2006) The effect of an impulsive knee valgus moment on in vitro relative ACL strain during a simulated landing task. Clin Biomech 21:977–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Withrow TJ, Huston LJ, Wojyts EM, Ashton-Miller JA (2006) The relationship between quadriceps muscle force, knee flexion, and anterior cruciate ligament strain in an in vitro simulated jump landing. Am J Sports Med 34:269–274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip Malloy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander Morgan
    • 1
  • Carolyn Meinerz
    • 1
  • Christopher Geiser
    • 1
  • Kristof Kipp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physical TherapyMarquette University MilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations