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Results of surgical treatment of calcaneus insertional tendinopathy in middle- and long-distance runners

Abstract

Purpose

Calcaneus insertional tendinopathy in runners is common and involves important therapeutic controversies. The object of this study was to determine the delay and level of return to sport after insertional surgery in runners, with and without tendon damage.

Methods

Eighteen runners underwent surgery for insertional calcaneus tendinopathy. Nine required an exostosectomy/bursectomy, and nine others required a tendon reinsertion/autograft. All patients were clinically assessed pre- and post-operatively with AOFAS scores and post-operatively with ATRS. This series included analysis of “pure conflicts” and “severe insertional lesion” scores. If the insertional tendon was free or the lesion was smaller than 50 %, the group was classified as “pure conflict/minor tendon damage”. In the situation in which a loss of tendon occurred or the tendon lesion was greater than 50 %, the group was classified as “major tendon damage”. Pre-operatively, the AOFAS “overall”, “pure conflicts/minor tendon damage” and “major tendon damage” groups’ scores were 58.5 ± 15, 68.2 ± 8.8 and 48.9 ± 13.9/100, respectively.

Results

Post-operatively, the AOFAS “overall”, “pure conflicts/minor tendon” and “major tendon damage” groups’ scores were 93.7 ± 8.2, 93.2 ± 10.2 and 95.2 ± 5.7/100, respectively. The AOFAS score gain for each group was, respectively, 35.2 ± 19, 24 ± 17 and 46.3 ± 14.1. The ATRS “overall”, “pure conflicts/minor tendon damage” and “major tendon damage” groups’ scores were 81.5 ± 14.9, 78.3 ± 20.1 and 84.7 ± 6.7/100, respectively. The global sport recovery delay was 9.3 ± 4.1 months; it was 6 ± 3.3 months for the pure conflict/minor tendon damage subgroup and 10 ± 4.6 months for the severe tendon damages subgroup.

Conclusion

Achilles insertional tendinopathy surgery on this population results in few complications with good functional results if the surgical technique is adapted to the type of tendon injury. The clinical relevance of this study is that it highlights the various forms of calcaneus insertional tendinopathy and various treatment options. The authors show that in the case of major tendon damage, time to return to sport is longer.

Level of evidence

A prospective comparative therapeutic study, Level II.

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Correspondence to F. Khiami.

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Rousseau, R., Gerometta, A., Fogerty, S. et al. Results of surgical treatment of calcaneus insertional tendinopathy in middle- and long-distance runners. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 23, 2494–2501 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-014-2986-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-014-2986-5

Keywords

  • Insertional tendinopathy
  • Bursitis
  • Haglund
  • Achilles