The ‘heel hook’ is a type of knee lock used in some forms of martial arts to stress the knee and cause opponent to concede defeat. While the knee is in a flexed and valgus disposition, an internal rotation force is applied to the tibia. Reports are lacking on serious knee trauma as a result of this technique. We report the case of a 32-year-old Mixed Martial Arts exponent who sustained complete anterior cruciate ligament rupture and an medial collateral ligament injury from the use of a ‘heel hook’.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Arriaza R, Leyes M (2005) Injury profile in competitive karate: prospective analysis of three consecutive World Karate Championships. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 13:603–607
Bergfeld JA, Safran MR (1998) Knee-ligaments. In: Safran MR, McKeag DB, Van Camp SP (eds) Manual of sports medicine. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia
Buse GJ (2006) No holds barred sport fighting: a 10 year review of mixed martial arts competition. Br J Sports Med 40:169–172
Daniel DM, Stone ML, Dobson BE et al (1994) Fte of the ACL-injured patient. A prospective outcome study. Am J Sports Med 22:632–644
Gentry C (2001) No holds barred: evolution. Archon, Richardson
Hsu WH, Fisk JA, Yamamoto Y et al (2006) Differences in torsional joint stiffness of the knee between genders: a human cadaveric study. Am J Sports Med 34:765–770
Huang KC, Hsu WH, Wang TC (2007) Acute injury of anterior cruciate ligament during karate training. Knee 14:245–248
Koshida S, Deguchi T, Miyashita K et al (2008) The common mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in judo: a retrospective analysis. Br J Sports Med. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2008.051425
Lundberg GD (1996) Blunt force violence in America—shades of gray or red. Ultimate/extreme fighting. JAMA 275:1684–1685
Majewski M, Susanne H, Klaus S (2006) Epidemiology of athletic knee injuries: a 10-year study. Knee 13:184–188
Zetaruk MN, Violan MA, Zurakowski D et al (2005) Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles. Br J Sports Med 39:29–33
About this article
Cite this article
Baker, J.F., Devitt, B.M. & Moran, R. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture secondary to a ‘heel hook’: a dangerous martial arts technique. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 18, 115–116 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-009-0877-y