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UNITY and Büchi automata


UNITY is a model for concurrent specifications with a complete logic for proving progress properties of the form “P leads to Q”. UNITY is generalized to U-specifications by giving more freedom to specify the steps that are to be taken infinitely often. In particular, these steps can correspond to non-total relations. The generalization keeps the logic sound and complete. The paper exploits the generalization in two ways. Firstly, the logic remains sound when the specification is extended with hypotheses of the form “F leads to G”. As the paper shows, this can make the logic incomplete. The generalization is used to show that the logic remains complete, if the added hypotheses “F leads to G” satisfy “F unless G”. The main result extends the applicability and completeness of UNITY logic to proofs that a given concurrent program satisfies any given formula of LTL, linear temporal logic, without the next-operator which is omitted because it is sensitive to stuttering. For this purpose, the program, written as a UNITY program, is extended with a number of boolean variables. The proof method relies on implementing the LTL formula, i.e., restricting the specification in such a way that only those runs remain that satisfy the formula. This result is a variation of the classical construction of a Büchi automatonfor a given LTL formula that accepts precisely those runs that satisfy the formula.


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I am indepted and very grateful to Ernie Cohen who taught me the main results of this paper many years ago.We had planned tomake this a joint paper, but circumstances intervened.Henoweven abstains frombeing a coauthor.

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Correspondence to Wim H. Hesselink.

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Eerke Albert Boiten

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Hesselink, W.H. UNITY and Büchi automata. Form Asp Comp 33, 185–205 (2021).

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  • Concurrency
  • Progress
  • LTL
  • Büchi automaton