Skip to main content

Refinement patterns for ASTDs

Abstract

This paper introduces three refinement patterns for algebraic state-transition diagrams (astds): state refinement, transition refinement and loop-transition refinement. These refinement patterns are derived from practice in using astds for specifying information systems and security policies in two industrial research projects. Two refinement relations used in these patterns are formally defined. For each pattern, proof obligations are proposed to ensure preservation of behaviour through refinement. The proposed refinement relations essentially consist in preserving scenarios by replacing abstract events with concrete events, or by introducing new events. Deadlocks cannot be introduced; divergence over new events is allowed in one of the refinement relation. We prove congruence-like properties for these three patterns, in order to show that they can be applied to a subpart of a specification while preserving global properties. These three refinement patterns are illustrated with a simple case study of a complaint management system.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abr96

    Abrial JR (1996) The B-book: assigning programs to meanings. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. Abr10

    Abrial JR (2010) Modeling in Event-B. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  3. AtH12

    Aalst WMP, ter Hofstede AHM (2012) Workflow patterns put into context. Softw Syst Model 11(3): 319–323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. BGPS12

    Bianculli D, Ghezzi C, Pautasso C, Senti P (2012) Specification patterns from research to industry: a case study in service-based applications. In: Proceedings of the 2012 international conference on software engineering. ICSE 2012, Piscataway, NJ, USA. IEEE Press, pp 968–976

  5. BKS83

    Back RJR, Kurki-Suonio R (1983) Decentralization of process nets with centralized control. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM symposium on PODC, pp 131–142

  6. BKS88

    Back R-J, Kurki-Suonio R (1988) Distributed cooperation with action systems. ACM Trans Program Lang Syst 10(4): 513–554

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  7. BvW94

    Back RJR, von Wright J (1994) Trace refinement of action systems. In: Structured programming. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 367–384

  8. CMP08

    Choppy C, Mayero M, Petrucci L (2008) Experimenting formal proofs of petri nets refinements. Electron Notes Theor Comput Sci 214: 231–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Cop03

    Coplien JO (2003) Software design patterns. In: Encyclopedia of computer science. Wiley, Chichester, pp 1604–1606

  10. DAC99

    Dwyer MB, Avrunin GS, Corbett JC (1999) Patterns in property specifications for finite-state verification. In: Proceedings of the 21st international conference on Software engineering, ICSE ’99, New York, NY, USA. ACM, pp 411–420

  11. DvL96

    Darimont R, van Lamsweerde A (1996) Formal refinement patterns for goal-driven requirements elaboration. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGSOFT symposium on foundations of software engineering, SIGSOFT ’96, New York, NY, USA. ACM, pp 179–190

  12. EJFG+10

    Embe Jiague M, Frappier M, Gervais F, Konopacki P, Milhau J, Laleau R, St-Denis R (2010) Model-driven engineering of functional security policies. In: Proceedings of the international conference on enterprise information systems 3: 374–379

    Google Scholar 

  13. FGL+08

    Frappier M, Gervais F, Laleau R, Fraikin B, St-Denis R (2008) Extending statecharts with process algebra operators. Innov Syst Softw Eng 4(3): 285–292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. FGLFdf

    Frappier M, Gervais F, Laleau R, Fraikin B (2008) Algebraic state transition diagrams. Technical report 24, Département d’informatique, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada http://www.dmi.usherb.ca/~frappier/Papers/astd2008.pdf.

  15. FSD03

    Frappier M, St-Denis R (2003) Eb3: an entity-based black-box specification method for information systems. Softw Syst Model 2(2): 134–149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. GHJV94

    Gamma E, Helm R, Johnson R, Vlissides J (1994) Design patterns: elements of reusable Object-Oriented Software. 1st edn., Addison-Wesley Professional, Boston

  17. Gla90

    van Glabbeek RJ (1996) Comparative Concurrency Semantics and Refinement of Actions. PhD thesis, Free University, Amsterdam, 1990. Second edition available as CWI tract 109, CWI, Amsterdam

  18. Har87

    Harel D (1987) Statecharts: a visual formalism for complex systems. Sci Comput Programm 8(3): 231–274

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  19. MFGL10

    Milhau J, Frappier M, Gervais F, Laleau R (2010) Systematic translation rules from ASTD to Event-B. In: Dominique M, Stephan M (eds) Integrated formal methods, vol 6396 of lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 245–259

  20. Mil11a

    Milhau J (2011) Un processus formel d’intégration de politiques de contrôle d’accès dans les systèmes d’information. PhD thesis, Université de Sherbrooke–Université Paris-Est, Sherbrooke

  21. MIL+11b

    Milhau J, Idani A, Laleau R, Labiadh M, Ledru Y, Frappier M (2011) Combining UML, ASTD and B for the formal specification of an access control filter. Innov Syst Softw Eng 7(4): 303–313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. MNB04

    Meng S, Naixiao Z, Barbosa LS (2004) On semantics and refinement of uml statecharts: a coalgebraic view. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on software engineering and formal methods, SEFM ’04, Washington, DC, USA. IEEE Computer Society, pp 164–173

  23. RHB98

    Roscoe AW, Hoare CAR, Bird R (1998) The theory and practice of concurrency. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA

  24. Rut00

    Rutten J (2000) Universal coalgebra: a theory of systems. Theoret Comput Sci 249: 3–80

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  25. Sai56

    Said MY (2010) Methodology of refinement and decomposition in UML-B. PhD thesis, University of Southampton, Southampton. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21656/

  26. Sch98

    Scholz P (1998) A refinement calculus for statecharts. In: Egidio A. (ed) Fundamental approaches to software engineering, vol 1382 of lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 285–301

  27. SK10

    Schönborn J, Kyas M (2010) Refinement patterns for hierarchical uml state machines. In: Arbab F, Sirjani M (eds) Fundamentals of software engineering, vol 5961 of lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 371–386

  28. ST11

    Schneider S, Treharne H (2011) Changing system interfaces consistently: a new refinement strategy for CSP ║ B. Sci Comput Program 76(10):837–860

    Google Scholar 

  29. STW11

    Schneider S, Treharne H, Wehrheim H (2011) A csp account of Event-B refinement. In: Proceedings of the refinement workshop on EPTCS 55, pp 139–154

  30. WC02

    Woodcock J, Cavalcanti A (2002) The semantics of circus. In: Bert D, Bowen JP, Henson MC, Robinson K (eds) ZB 2002: formal specification and development in Z and B, vol 2272 of lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 184–203

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marc Frappier.

Additional information

I. Perseil, P. Gibson, and J.Woodcock

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Frappier, M., Gervais, F., Laleau, R. et al. Refinement patterns for ASTDs. Form Asp Comp 26, 919–941 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00165-013-0286-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • astd
  • Refinement
  • Patterns
  • Information systems