Formal Aspects of Computing

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 37–62 | Cite as

Cryptographic protocols with everyday objects

  • James Heather
  • Steve Schneider
  • Vanessa Teague
Original Article


Most security protocols appearing in the literature make use of cryptographic primitives that assume that the participants have access to some sort of computational device. However, there are times when there is need for a security mechanism to evaluate some result without leaking sensitive information, but computational devices are unavailable. We discuss here various protocols for solving cryptographic problems using everyday objects: coins, dice, cards, and envelopes.


CSP Formal modelling Formal methods Cryptography Everyday objects 


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Copyright information

© British Computer Society 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Heather
    • 1
  • Steve Schneider
    • 1
  • Vanessa Teague
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ComputingUniversity of SurreySurreyUK
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Software EngineeringUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

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