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The effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children

Abstract.

The main concern of this paper is to analyze the effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children in households in the Netherlands. For this purpose a hurdle count data model is formulated and estimated by the generalized method of moments. The hurdle takes explicitly into account the interrelationship between female employment status and timing of first birth. The number of children, once children are present in the household, is modeled conditional on female employment status. The empirical results show that female employment status is a major determinant of the presence and number of children in households: employed women schedule children later in life and have fewer children compared to nonemployed women, holding educational attainment constant. After controlling for female employment status, the educational attainment of both the woman and the man in the households are found to have relatively small effects on the presence and number of children.

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Received: 3 November 1998/Accepted: 22 September 1999

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Kalwij, A. The effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children. J Popul Econ 13, 221–239 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1007/s001480050135

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s001480050135

  • JEL classification: C35, J13, J20
  • Key words: Hurdle count data model, fertility, female employment