Table 5 Trade and fertility (fixed-effects estimates)

From: Trade and fertility in the developing world: the impact of trade and trade structure

Dependent: TFR (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
All countries
Man. exp. p.c. −0.005*** −0.004*** −0.003*** -0.003*** −0.003***
(0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Prim. exp. p.c. 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
(0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
lnfant mortality   0.211*** 0.208*** 0.183*** 0.188***
  (0.009) (0.009) (0.010) (0.010)
GDP per capita   0.007    0.009*
  (0.005)    (0.005)
Female schooling     0.058*** 0.050***
    (0.010) (0.011)
Urbanization      0.009
     (0.021)
Time trend (t) −0.017*** −0.010*** −0.010*** −0.013*** −0.012***
(0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Observations 3,150 3,115 3,116 2,906 2,905
Countries (n) 103 103 103 93 93
Years (t) 38 38 38 38 38
High-income countries
Man. exp. p.c. −0.007** −0.003 −0.001 0.001 −0.001
(0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.004) (0.005)
Prim. exp. p.c. 0.000 −0.000 0.001 −0.002 −0.002
(0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002)
lnfant mortality   0.164*** 0.179*** 0.068*** 0.064***
  (0.024) (0.024) (0.027) (0.029)
GDP per capita   0.053***    0.027*
  (0.014)    (0.016)
Female schooling     −0.454*** −0.438***
    (0.043) (0.048)
Urbanization      0.074
     (0.088)
Time trend (t) −0.016*** −0.009*** −0.008*** −0.005*** −0.006***
(0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Observations 1,294 1,265 1,266 1,221 1,220
Countries (n) 38 38 38 36 36
Years (t) 38 38 38 38 38
Low-income countries
Man. exp. p.c. −0.006*** −0.004*** −0.004*** −0.002** −0.003***
(0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Prim. exp. p.c. 0.000 0.004** 0.004** 0.002* 0.002
  (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.001) (0.002)
lnfant mortality   0.278*** 0.271*** 0.228*** 0.226***
   (0.010) (0.010) (0.010) (0.010)
GDP per capita   −0.003    0.001
   (0.006)    (0.006)
Female schooling     0.122*** 0.111***
     (0.009) (0.010)
Urbanization      0.074***
      (0.021)
Time trend (t) −0.017*** −0.010*** −0.010*** −0.015*** −0.016***
  (0.00) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.001)
Observations 1,856 1,850 1,850 1,685 1,685
Countries (n) 65 65 65 57 57
Years (t) 38 38 38 38 38
  1. Notes: Dependent variable in all models is the total fertility rate (TFR). All variables are used in natural logarithms. Heteroscedasticity and serial correlation robust S.E.s in parentheses. Sample range is 1980 – 2007 with yearly intervals.
  2. *p = 0.10; **p = 0.05; ***p = 0.01 (denote significance)