Reasons for a proposal for a cybernetic the governance of the Peruvian State
The reasons for a proposal for a cybernetic governance of the Peruvian State are the following:
The VSM (Espejo and Reyes 2011; Beer 1979, 1981, 1985) allows to cybernetically observe and study the real world with diverse perspectives in an integral (i.e. systemic) way, following the five systems of the VSM, in each perspective, getting in this way a coherent holistic appreciation for the analysis and design of the system in focus being studied.
VSM is a flexible and open methodology that embeds within it other systemic methodologies and technologies, to manage the complexity of a specific case.
With all of this being said, what is presented onward is based on the diagnosis made in Sect. 4, considering the four perspectives.
An urgent and radical reform of the Peruvian State is required, based first of all on how the Peruvian State is conceived, changing from a functionalist and structuralist approach to a systemic understanding of the Peruvian State, where the management of the organizations is based on human activity systems (HAS) (Checkland 1981; Wilson 2002) and business process management (BPM) (Dumas et al. 2018), instead of using organigrams, which are static representations of a dynamic world.
Concerning ST&I, the budget assigned should be increased significantly, to support and develop an important group of Peruvian researchers that will can be able to create and set up the technological transformation and sustainable industrialization of the Peruvian society.
It is needed to work with the National Agreement and the National Project, but with an updated version in real time, to consider the viewpoints, needs, problems and desires of the people around the country.
There is a need to do foresight studies about ST&I for Peru, to see opportunities in the international markets for Peruvian goods and services. These studies should be the basis for implementing an ST&I strategy to transform Peru into a sustainable industrialized country.
It is required that it works in real time. What is required is to manage all sectors (System 1s) by processes, automating them and with very well-defined indicators to be able to diagnose what is happening in the environment, the operative issues and the general management issues, in real time, at each System 1 (i.e., the sectors).
This system is not working correctly, currently. It needs to work in real time and with defined indicators that can measure in a permanent way the performance of Systems 1s (the sectors).
For doing this, the soft approach (Checkland 1981) and processes’ perspective (Dumas et al. 2018) are a need.
Giving a brief resume of the possible changes that can be implemented among the Systems 1s, it can be mentioned that the economy, currently based mainly on exportations of raw material, should be changed, so that most of the Peruvian exportations are based on high valued added products and services made in Peru.
There is a need to improve the infrastructure of roads along the country. The same happens with the Internet. Its use should be a right for every Peruvian citizen.
The productivity of agriculture should be improved in the highlands with the use of modern technology and providing high-quality education to peasants concerned with agricultural productivity, but respecting their cultures, beliefs and social practices.
Education at all levels should be a right for any Peruvian citizen, providing a high-quality education around the country at all levels. The exploitation of all technological resources to provide high quality online education along the country should be taken as a great opportunity to transform Peruvian society.
The level of nutrition of the people, especially of children and elder people, should be improved.
The Peruvian health system should be transformed radically, based on a systemic-cybernetic (Beer 1985; Checkland 1981) and business process management (Dumas et al. 2018) approach, with the use of indicators in real time. COVID-19 has brought the opportunity to do this radical transformation of the Peruvian health system.
The private sector, especially the SMEs, should be very well supported to implement the Productive Diversification National Plan proposed by the Minister of Production, to convert Peru into an industrialized country, based on a sustainable approach.
There should also be a radical fight against corruption at all levels in the Peruvian State, as well as in the private sector. The use of intelligent information technology concerning cyber security and process automation would be good allies to resolve this problem.
Considering the internal security, it is very important to resolve issues related to drug dealers and terrorism. Improving better living conditions for the people and providing job opportunities and education for children and young adults around the country can collaborate in facing these issues.
There is a need to do a radical state reform, changing the structuralist and functionalist approach of the Peruvian State to a systemic management of it based on a business process management.
There is a need to develop foresight studies in each of the regions to define the possible scenarios for each region.
Taking into consideration these foresight studies, systemic strategic planning at public organizations will be needed to be done, considering all the stakeholders, including non-human ones, to consider their power influence, their views and interests.
From these systemic strategic planning studies, it would be possible to consider and define the strategic processes needed to improve and automate using business process management intelligent technologies.
The National Agreement and the National Project, under this perspective, should be permanently updated, considering the desires, needs and problems existing in the regions. All these issues should be managed in real time.
System 3, the senior management, should have real time dashboards to do a follow-up to all System 1s (the regionals governments). For doing this, a set of indicators that can measure efficiency, efficacy, effectiveness, ethics and esthetic (5e’s) (Checkland 1981) should be adequate.
Dashboards can also be developed to measure the competitiveness of regions, using the NCC approach and its indicators and/or the indicators proposed by Prof. Francisco Parra-Luna (Parra-Luna 2018).
Multicriteria and multiattribute expert systems (Bohanec and Rodriguez-Ulloa 2014) can be used to implement intelligent dashboards that can measure the competitiveness of regions in real time. These indicators can also be used to create dynamic balanced scorecards (Rodriguez-Ulloa 2010) to develop prospective performance studies for each region for decision making.
System 2 should work in real time to get indicators from the environment of each region as well as indicators from the operation and management functions of each region (System 1s).
Indicators from dynamic balanced scorecards to do prospective analysis about possible future scenarios for each region can be fed to System 3 as well.
According to the results shown in the diagnosis mode, there are five regions with the least scores in the mean overall performance. As a measure to improve the situation, a policy to increase the performance of the regions with the worst performance must be developed. On other hand, it is also necessary to support those regions which have a regular performance to increase their performance and for the most competitive regions to maintain or increase their performance as well.
The worst regions in the overall performance, for the period 2012–2021, are Huancavelica (2.99), Cajamarca (3.14), Puno (3.15), Loreto (3.30) and Huanuco (3.37), and the most competitive regions considering the overall performance results are: Ica (5.96), Tacna (6.38), Arequipa (6.44), Moquegua (6.73) and Lima (7.57). All other regions have a regular overall performance.
A significant improvement of the performance of Systems 1 (regions) could occur if instead of getting the performance of regions in yearly reports, this information could be obtained in real time with a monthly follow-up. The use of cloud systems, expert systems and multicriteria and multiattribute analysis can be the tools to implement this kind of solution.
River basin perspective
It is important to take measures to implement this perspective within the state management.
Peru being one of the most biodiverse countries around the world, the river basins’ perspective is so important for the proper management of natural resources such as water, land, air, flora and fauna, the main assets that Peruvian citizens have nowadays.
Considering the National Project and the National Agreement (Secretaria Ejecutiva del AN 2002), under this perspective, it is urgent to consider the claims and measures of protection that diverse ancestral communities are asking to implement by the state to preserve the Peruvian flora and fauna, water and land, recovering and using the still preserved Incas’ andenes to create an organic agriculture.
These kinds of claims should be processed in real time to provide solutions in the short time.
The Water National Authority (ANA) should develop foresight studies and models about the future of water in each of the System 1s (i.e., basins), considering at least the second level of recursion in each System 1. These studies should estimate what should be the supply and demand of water till 2050 for each river basin.
It is necessary, as well, to develop studies oriented to decontaminate all the Peruvian rivers and lakes. This can be done with the support of the Peruvian universities network as well as international cooperation.
Again, systemic modeling as soft systems dynamics methodology (Rodriguez-Ulloa et al. 2011), agent-based modeling (Wilensky 2011) or analysis of scenarios (Godet 1995) would be important to develop and apply.
The river basins perspective needs a monitoring and control system in real time to follow the state of the rivers and lakes along the country. It should use indicators concerning the quality and quantity of water in rivers, lakes as well as in underground rivers and lakes, especially in the coast and the highlands, where mining activities are developed, and the jungle, where illegal mining and drug dealers–terrorists operate.
It must also show indicators and dashboards in real time about the competitiveness of each river basin as well as indicators related to river basin sustainability (Warhurst 2002).
A System 2 should be implemented in order to get the needed indicators from Systems 1s and their respective environments, in real time, in order that System 3 can implement the adequate dashboards in all issues concerned with the supply and demand of water around the country.
As mentioned in Sect. 4.4, Peru has three main river basins, and within each of them more river basins can be encountered (at the second and third recursion level).
Each river basin should be monitored through the use of indicators to measure the quality and quantity of water they manage in the basin. These indicators should be obtained in real time to be a tool for decision making.
The state structure is not designed to manage the country from the macroregional perspective. In that sense it is important to take measures to implement this perspective in the state management.
Peru being one of the most biodiverse countries around the world, the macroregion perspective is important for an integrated management of the sea, the coast, the highlands and the jungle. Also, the integration of people from diverse geographical places will contribute to Peruvian society integration, where diverse cultures, customs, beliefs, world views, languages and ethnicities coexist in each macroregion.
Considering the National Project and the National Agreement (Secretaria Ejecutiva del AN 2002), under this perspective, it is urgent to consider the claims, desires and problems expressed by people from macroregions. The use of social networks and intelligent chatbots (Sabharwal 2020) in real time could be very useful for the management of these claims and desires to be taken into account by the Peruvian State.
There is a need to develop foresight and soft system dynamics studies, considering the view of macroregions, to have an integral view.
To develop platforms that allow to visualize future scenarios of macroregions, using systemic methodologies, like soft system dynamics methodology—SSDM (Rodriguez-Ulloa et al. 2011, 2021) or foresight techniques (Godet 1995) could help in seeing alternative futures for each macroregion.
The use of agent based modeling-ABM (Wilensky 2011) will also collaborate to clarify what should be the needed path to follow in the future for each macroregion.
The Board of Regional Governors should have this role.
The macroregion perspective needs a monitoring and control system in real time in order to do a periodic follow-up of all regions pertaining to the macroregion being studied.
It must show indicators related to its competitiveness, using the NCC approach, sustainability indicators (Warhurst 2002) or those indicators proposed by Prof. Francisco Parra-Luna, (Parra-Luna 2018) and/or the 5e’s indicators (Checkland 1981).
A System 2 should be implemented in order to get the needed indicators from Systems 1s and their respective environments, in real time, so that System 3 can implement the adequate dashboards in all issues concerned to the management of the macroregions. These indicators should be to measure the competitiveness and sustainability for each macroregion and the ones of the whole country.
The NCC should have this role.
As mentioned in Sect. 4.5, Peru has three macroregions, and within each of them, a group of regions are in.
Each macroregion should be monitored through the use of indicators to measure their competitiveness and sustainability. These indicators should be obtained in real time to be a tool for decision making.