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Development of an optical system for analysis of the ink–paper interaction


In this work is presented and described an optical system specifically designed and implemented to be applied for the study of the ink–paper interaction at the paper surface, considering the two main directions of the paper sheet (machine and cross directions). This work is particularly concerned with the system description, complete characterization, test, and its usage under real conditions. Concerning the system characterization, the main parameters were addressed and set having in mind its optimization. Relatively to the test of the system, several measurements using specific object samples with known dimensions were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the obtained results. In terms of its usage under real conditions, an experiment was carried out using a commercial ink and common copy paper to dynamically collect data of its interaction. The collected data, after processing, enabled the determination of the main results of the analyzed ink–paper interaction, which allowed to reach the following conclusions; (1) the implemented system offers two different analysis approaches (qualitative and quantitative), both showing to be in agreement; and (2) the system also shows to be important to identify variations of the ink–paper interaction, manifested in the machine and cross directions of the paper.

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This work was carried out under the project PADIS (FCOMP-01-0202_FEDER-05348), which was co-financed by the European Union through FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) in the extent of QREN (Quadro de Referência Estratégico Nacional 2007-2013) through COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade). The authors thank all the support given by the Textile and Paper Materials Unit, the Remote Sensing Unit, The Optical Center, the Department of Chemistry, and the Department of Physics of the University of Beira Interior. The authors would also like to gratefully acknowledge RAIZ—Forest and Paper Investigation Institute for the provided ink and paper set that was analyzed with the implemented optical system, and for the many other material that was kindly ceded.

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Correspondence to António de Oliveira Mendes.

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de Oliveira Mendes, A., Fiadeiro, P.T., Ramos, A.M.M. et al. Development of an optical system for analysis of the ink–paper interaction. Machine Vision and Applications 24, 1733–1750 (2013).

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  • Optical system
  • Machine vision
  • Image analysis and processing
  • Ink–paper interaction
  • Surface inspection