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The PRICES statement: an ESICM expert consensus on methodology for conducting and reporting critical care echocardiography research studies

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Echocardiography is a common tool for cardiac and hemodynamic assessments in critical care research. However, interpretation (and applications) of results and between-study comparisons are often difficult due to the lack of certain important details in the studies. PRICES (Preferred Reporting Items for Critical care Echocardiography Studies) is a project endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and conducted by the Echocardiography Working Group, aiming at producing recommendations for standardized reporting of critical care echocardiography (CCE) research studies.


The PRICE panel identified lists of clinical and echocardiographic parameters (the “items”) deemed important in four main areas of CCE research: left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, right ventricular function and fluid management. Each item was graded using a critical index (CI) that combined the relative importance of each item and the fraction of studies that did not report it, also taking experts’ opinion into account.


A list of items in each area that deemed essential for the proper interpretation and application of research results is recommended. Additional items which aid interpretation were also proposed.


The PRICES recommendations reported in this document, as a checklist, represent an international consensus of experts as to which parameters and information should be included in the design of echocardiography research studies. PRICES recommendations provide guidance to scientists in the field of CCE with the objective of providing a recommended framework for reporting of CCE methodology and results.

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PRICES was endorsed and supported by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.

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Correspondence to Antoine Vieillard-Baron.

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Sanfilippo, F., Huang, S., Herpain, A. et al. The PRICES statement: an ESICM expert consensus on methodology for conducting and reporting critical care echocardiography research studies. Intensive Care Med 47, 1–13 (2021).

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