What’s new in electrical impedance tomography
- 1.1k Downloads
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a dynamic, non-invasive, radiation-free, bedside lung imaging technique. Based on the application of alternate microcurrents spinning at 20–50 Hz along a set of electrodes (16 or 32, depending on the system) positioned around the patient’s thorax, EIT allows continuous tomographic mapping of the changes in regional gas content inside the chest. This technique provides several relevant physiologic measures, including regional tidal volume, heterogeneity of ventilation distribution, gravitational distribution of respiratory system compliance, as well as pulmonary perfusion, cardiac output, and central intravascular volume status. We present here the most recent advances at the crossroad between physiologic understanding and clinical applications.
EIT to guide PEEP setting
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
Tommaso Mauri received payment for lectures from Draeger Medical (unrelated to the present work). Alain Mercat declares no conflicts of interest. Giacomo Grasselli received payment for lectures from Getinge, Draeger Medical, Pfizer, and Fisher & Paykel, and travel-congress registration support from Getinge and Biotest (all unrelated to the present work).
- 1.Mauri T, Bellani G, Confalonieri A, Tagliabue P, Turella M, Coppadoro A, Citerio G, Patroniti N, Pesenti A (2013) Topographic distribution of tidal ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome: effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and pressure support. Crit Care Med 41(7):1664–1673CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4.Franchineau G, Bréchot N, Lebreton G, Hekimian G, Nieszkowska A, Trouillet JL, Leprince P, Chastre J, Luyt CE, Combes A, Schmidt M (2017) Bedside contribution of electrical impedence tomography to setting positive end-expiratory pressure for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-treated patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 196:447–457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Mauri T, Eronia N, Turrini C, Battistini M, Grasselli G, Rona R, Volta CA, Bellani G, Pesenti A (2016) Bedside assessment of the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on lung inflation and recruitment by the helium dilution technique and electrical impedance tomography. Intensive Care Med 42:1576–1587CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Mauri T, Eronia N, Abbruzzese C, Marcolin R, Coppadoro A, Spadaro S, Patroniti N, Bellani G, Pesenti A (2015) Effects of sigh on regional lung strain and ventilation heterogeneity in acute respiratory failure patients undergoing assisted mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 43:1823–1831CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Mauri T, Alban L, Turrini C, Cambiaghi B, Carlesso E, Taccone P, Bottino N, Lissoni A, Spadaro S, Volta CA, Gattinoni L, Pesenti A, Grasselli G (2017) Optimum support by high-flow nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: effects of increasing flow rates. Intensive Care Med 43:1453–1463CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar