Adjuvant therapy in acute heart failure
Contemporary management of acute heart failure (AHF) includes 1) early diagnosis based on signs and symptoms of AHF with measurement of circulating natriuretic peptides, 2) prompt administration of IV diuretics (40 mg of furosemide), 3) IV vasodilators, if the systolic blood pressure (> 90 mmHg) permits, and 4) correction of hypoxia (SpO2 < 94%) with oxygen or immediate noninvasive ventilation (NIV), if needed . Superimposed challenges such as respiratory distress, diuretic resistance, association of AHF with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or atrial fibrillation (AF), or cardiogenic shock (CS) require adjuvant therapies .
Contemporary management of AHF
Diagnosis and management of acute heart failure were extensively described in our recent practical guidance . Natriuretic peptide measurements should be integrated into the interpretation of clinical signs and symptoms, since they are accurate to confirm or rule out AHF, and whenever possible completed with...
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