Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 320–331 | Cite as

Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia

  • Goce Spasovski
  • Raymond Vanholder
  • Bruno Allolio
  • Djillali Annane
  • Steve Ball
  • Daniel Bichet
  • Guy Decaux
  • Wiebke Fenske
  • Ewout Hoorn
  • Carole Ichai
  • Michael Joannidis
  • Alain Soupart
  • Robert Zietse
  • Maria Haller
  • Sabine van der Veer
  • Wim Van BiesenEmail author
  • Evi Nagler


Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. Hyponatraemia is present in 15–20 % of emergency admissions to hospital and occurs in up to 20 % of critically ill patients. Symptomatology may vary from subtle to severe or even life threatening. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. Against this background, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology and the European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association, represented by European Renal Best Practice have developed a Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia.


Hyponatraemia Hypotonic Guideline Diagnosis Management 

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goce Spasovski
    • 1
  • Raymond Vanholder
    • 2
  • Bruno Allolio
    • 3
  • Djillali Annane
    • 4
  • Steve Ball
    • 5
  • Daniel Bichet
    • 6
  • Guy Decaux
    • 7
  • Wiebke Fenske
    • 3
  • Ewout Hoorn
    • 8
  • Carole Ichai
    • 9
  • Michael Joannidis
    • 10
  • Alain Soupart
    • 7
  • Robert Zietse
    • 8
  • Maria Haller
    • 11
    • 12
  • Sabine van der Veer
    • 11
    • 13
  • Wim Van Biesen
    • 2
    Email author
  • Evi Nagler
    • 11
  1. 1.State University Hospital SkopjeSkopjeMacedonia
  2. 2.Ghent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Würzburg University HospitalWürzburgGermany
  4. 4.Raymond Poincaré HospitalUniversity of Versailles Saint QuentinParisFrance
  5. 5.Newcastle Hospitals and Newcastle UniversityNewcastleUK
  6. 6.Consultant NephrologistSacré-Coeur Hospital, University of MontrealMontrealCanada
  7. 7.Erasmus University HospitalBrusselsBelgium
  8. 8.Erasmus Medical CentreRotterdamThe Netherlands
  9. 9.Nice University HospitalNiceFrance
  10. 10.Innsbruck University HospitalInnsbruckAustria
  11. 11.ERBP Methods Support TeamGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  12. 12.KH Elisabethinen LinzLinzAustria
  13. 13.Centre for informaticsAmsterdam Medical CentreAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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