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Table 4 Multidimensional scaling, dimensional quantifications (z scores)

From: Construction of the Sophia Observation withdrawal Symptoms-scale (SOS) for critically ill children

Withdrawal symptoms Dimension
1 2 3
Agitation 0.909 0.274 −0.190
Anxiety −0.594 −0.591 0.223
Increased muscle tension −0.609 0.696 0.173
Motor disturbance −0.820 0.032 −0.280
Tremors 0.126 0.350 −0.417
Crying −0.090 0.168 0.678
Grimacing 0.232 −0.006 −0.668
Sleep disturbance (less than 1 h) 0.465 −0.605 −0.177
Pupil dilation 0.153 −0.052 −0.236
Seizures 0.102 −0.200 0.070
Hallucinations −0.144 0.167 0.326
Vomiting 0.014 0.523 −0.259
Diarrhea −0.050 −0.520 0.456
Feeding 0.523 −0.391 0.340
Tachycardia −0.437 −0.108 0.227
Tachypnea 0.064 0.719 0.273
Fever 0.632 0.198 0.296
Sweating −0.360 −0.178 −0.646
Yawning −0.174 0.121 −0.259
Sneezing 0.168 0.003 0.289
Mottling −0.110 −0.600 −0.218
  1. Z scores >0.30 were highlighted, these symptoms has substantial score on one of the three dimensions