Der Orthopäde

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 496–504 | Cite as

Adult cervical deformity: radiographic and osteotomy classifications

  • Bassel G. Diebo
  • Neil V. Shah
  • Maximillian Solow
  • Vincent Challier
  • Carl B. Paulino
  • Peter G. Passias
  • Renaud Lafage
  • Frank J. Schwab
  • Han Jo Kim
  • Virginie Lafage


Cervical spine deformity represents a broad spectrum of pathologies that are both complex in etiology and debilitating towards quality of life for patients. Despite advances in the understanding of drivers and outcomes of cervical spine deformity, only one classification system and one system of nomenclature for osteotomy techniques currently exist. Moreover, there is a lack of standardization regarding the indications for each technique. This article reviews the adult cervical deformity (ACD) and current classification and nomenclature for osteotomy techniques, highlighting the need for further work to develop a unified approach for each case and improve communication amongst the spine community with respect to ACD.


Cervical spine Review article Lordosis Classification Kyphosis 



Adult cervical deformity


Ankylosing spondylitis


Chin-brow-to-vertical angle


Cervical kyphosis


Cervical lordosis


EuroQuol-5Dimension questionnaire


Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score


Neck disability index


Proximal junctional kyphosis


Patient-reported outcome


Pedicle subtraction osteotomy


Range of motion


Sagittal vertical axis


Thoracic kyphosis

Deformitäten der Halswirbelsäule – Nomenklatur für den Release von Weichgewebe und Osteotomieverfahren


Deformitäten der Halswirbelsäule (HWS) umfassen ein breites Spektrum an Pathologien, die sowohl komplex in ihrer Ätiologie sind als auch die Lebensqualität der Patienten belasten. Trotz der verbesserten Kenntnisse von Einflussfaktoren und Ergebnissen der HWS-Deformitäten existieren bisher nur ein einziges Klassifikationssystem und eine Nomenklatur für Osteotomieverfahren. Zudem fehlt eine Standardisierung bezüglich der Indikationsstellung zu den einzelnen Verfahren. Dieser Beitrag gibt eine Übersicht über die Deformitäten der Halswirbelsäule bei Erwachsenen („adult cervical deformity“, ACD) sowie die aktuellen Klassifikationen und Nomenklaturen für Osteotomieverfahren. Hierbei soll betont werden, dass es weiterer Arbeiten zur Entwicklung eines einheitlichen Verfahrens für einzelne Fälle sowie einer Verbesserung der Kommunikation in der Spine Community in Bezug auf ACD bedarf.


Halswirbelsäule Übersichtsartikel Lordose Klassifikation Kyphose 


Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

B.G. Diebo, N.V. Shah, M. Solow, V. Challier, C.B. Paulino, P.G. Passias, R. Lafage, V. Lafage, F.J. Schwab, and H.J. Kim declare that they have no competing interests.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bassel G. Diebo
    • 1
  • Neil V. Shah
    • 1
  • Maximillian Solow
    • 2
  • Vincent Challier
    • 3
  • Carl B. Paulino
    • 1
  • Peter G. Passias
    • 4
  • Renaud Lafage
    • 5
  • Frank J. Schwab
    • 5
  • Han Jo Kim
    • 5
  • Virginie Lafage
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation MedicineState University of New York (SUNY), Downstate Medical CenterBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.St. George’s University School of MedicineSt. George’sGrenada
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryBordeaux Hospital University Center (CHU)BordeauxFrance
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryNYU Medical Center-NYU Langone Orthopedic HospitalNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Spine ServiceHospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA

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