Der Orthopäde

, Volume 46, Issue 12, pp 1015–1021 | Cite as

Superior glenoid inclination and glenoid bone loss

Definition, assessment, biomechanical consequences, and surgical options
  • L. Favard
  • J. Berhouet
  • G. Walch
  • J. Chaoui
  • C. Lévigne


Correct anatomical alignment of the glenoid component is of central importance for wear and loosening in shoulder endoprostheses. The aim of this article is to review and clarify the biomechanical and clinical effects of incorrect glenoid inclination in reverse and anatomical joint replacements. Based on the literature and on our own work, statements are made about the following: (1) the glenoid inclination of a normal glenoid, a degenerative glenoid and a glenoid implant, and the consequences if superior inclination is too large, and (2) the surgical technique as well as tips and tricks for correct adjustment of the inclination. The inclination of the glenoid plane is a morphological parameter of the scapula with high individual variation and is best measured using reformatted computed tomography using three-dimensional software for reconstruction and evaluation. The standard value is between 0 and 10°. Excessive superior inclination promotes translation of the humeral head and the formation of rotator cuff tears—in a degenerative glenoid, to superior wear. The correct amount of superior inclination of the glenoid component is essential for the survival of the implant. Positioning without excessive superior inclination is therefore mandatory. Precise preoperative determination of glenoid inclination and wear is important in order to correctly plan the positioning of an implant. This serves as the basis for deciding whether a bone graft or patient-specific instrumentation is necessary. Thus, the surgeon also has prognostic parameters for the anticipation of possible complications as a result of the bone defect and abnormal orientation. However, the evaluation must always include the position of the scapula in these considerations.


Humeral head Shoulder arthroplasty Bone transplantation Rotator cuff Imaging, three-dimensional 



Two dimensional


Three dimensional


Critical shoulder angle


Computed tomography


Extrinsic glenoid inclination

Superiore Glenoidinklination und glenoidaler Knochenverlust

Definition, Assessment, biomechanische Konsequenzen und operative Optionen


Die korrekte anatomische Ausrichtung der Glenoidkomponente ist in der Schulterendoprothetik für den Abrieb und die Lockerung von zentraler Bedeutung. Die Arbeit befasst sich mit den biomechanischen und klinischen Auswirkungen einer fehlerhaften Inklination beim inversen und anatomischen Gelenkersatz. Auf der Grundlage eigener Daten und Angaben in der Literatur werden Aussagen getroffen über: (1) Normwerte, Veränderungen bei degenerativen Veränderungen und die Auswirkungen einer zu hohen Inklination der Glenoidkomponente sowie (2) die Operationstechnik sowie Tipps und Tricks für eine korrekte Einstellung der Inklination. Die Inklination der Glenoidebene ist ein morphologischer Parameter der Skapula, der eine hohe individuelle Variationsbreite zeigt. Zur Evaluierung und Rekonstruktion wird er optimal anhand von reformatierten Computertomographiedarstellungen und 3‑D-Software ermittelt. Der Standardwert liegt zwischen 0 und 10°. Eine stark erhöhte superiore Inklination fördert die Translation des Humeruskopfes nach kranial und die Entstehung von Defekten der Rotatorenmanschette. Bei degenerativem Gelenkverschleiß kann sich auch ein kranialer Abrieb der Gelenkpfanne entwickeln. Die korrekte Einstellung der Inklination ist somit essenziell für die Überlebensrate der Glenoidkomponente, und eine Implantation in superiorer Fehlstellung ist daher unbedingt zu vermeiden. Die präzise präoperative Bestimmung der Inklination und des kranialen Abriebs der Gelenkpfanne ist von Bedeutung für eine korrekte Planung der Implantation einer Glenoidkomponente. Diese dient als Basis für die Entscheidung über einen knöchernen Aufbau sowie eine patientenspezifische Instrumentation. Damit verfügt der Operateur auch über prognostische Parameter für das Auftreten möglicher Komplikationen als Folge des Knochendefektes und einer fehlerhaften Orientierung. Die Evaluierung sollte jedoch grundsätzlich die Position der Skapula in diese Überlegungen einbeziehen.


Humeruskopf Schulterarthoplastik Knochentransplantation Totatorenmanschette Dreidimensionale Bildgebung 


Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

L. Favard, G. Walch and C. Lévigne are consultants for the company Wright and receive royalties from the company Tornier. J. Berhouet and J. Chaoui declare that they have no competing interests.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Favard
    • 1
  • J. Berhouet
    • 1
  • G. Walch
    • 2
  • J. Chaoui
    • 3
  • C. Lévigne
    • 4
  1. 1.Orthopédie 1CHU TrousseauToursFrance
  2. 2.Centre Orthopédique SantyHôpital Jean MermozLyonFrance
  3. 3.ImascapBrestFrance
  4. 4.Clinique du ParcLyonFrance

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