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Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Uncured Resin Feedstocks for Vat Photopolymerization 3D Printing to a Cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia Dubia)

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Abstract

The accessibility and popularity of additive manufacturing (AM) has increased over the past decade. Environmental hazard assessment and safety data sheets for 3D printer feedstocks has lagged technology development. Vat photopolymerization may have unique risks relative to other AM technologies due to mishandling of uncured monomers/oligomer feedstocks and its decreasing cost enabling uninformed residential use. The acute and chronic toxicity of six uncured resins to Ceriodaphnia dubia was explored. Two-day acute toxicity (LC50) ranged from 2.6 to 33 mg/L and inhibition concentrations (IC25) values for reproduction ranged from 0.33 to 16 mg/L. Cleaning and waste management procedures recommended in user guides could be the most hazardous handling scenario as use of isopropyl alcohol increases miscibility and thus the fate, transport and bioavailability of the uncured resins. Residential users may often be poorly informed about potential toxicity and the need for a plan for use, handling, and waste management of uncured resins.

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Funding

This work was funded by the OSD PE congressional add Safe Rapid Use of Advanced Materials program number 0603463 A (U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center; Dr. Elizabeth Ferguson, Technical Director). The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in the material used in this research. The use of any material trade names is not an endorsement by the United States government. Permission was granted by the Chief of Engineers to publish this information.

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Correspondence to Mark Ballentine.

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Ballentine, M., Kennedy, A., Melby, N. et al. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Uncured Resin Feedstocks for Vat Photopolymerization 3D Printing to a Cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia Dubia). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 110, 56 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-023-03698-5

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