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Seasonal Variations and Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Seti River Basin, Gandaki Province, Nepal


To explore the seasonal variability and associated health risks of dissolved trace elements (TEs), a total of 45 water samples (15 samples in each season) were collected from the Seti River Basin during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons. A total of 15 TEs were analysed and the results revealed that Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were primarily controlled by lithogenic sources, whereas, Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Cesium (Cs), Cupper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) were derived from both anthropic and geogenic sources. Additionally, the concentration of Zn was markedly high, especially during the post-monsoon season nearby the landfill site, indicating the anthropic signatures. The hazard index and cancer index were found to be < 1.00 and 10−6–10−4, respectively indicating minimum health impacts. The water quality index was < 50 throughout the sampling periods, with better water quality during the monsoon. This study could help to formulate the necessary policies for the sustainability of the Himalayan River Basins.

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The authors would like to thank Professor Dr. Zhang Fan for supporting the laboratory analysis of the trace elements samples in the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Subash Adhikari for supporting the sample collection. In addition, we acknowledge the Central Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for providing partial laboratory support and making a conducive environment for this research work.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors

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Conceptualization and data collection: RRP; lab work: RRP and FURQ; data analysis: FURQ and KB; writing of the original manuscript: RRP, KB, JN, and SP; review and editing: MBC, KBP, LBT, and G.W. All authors have approved the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Kiran Bishwakarma.

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Pant, R.R., Bishwakarma, K., Nepal, J. et al. Seasonal Variations and Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Seti River Basin, Gandaki Province, Nepal. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 107, 441–448 (2021).

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  • Seasonal variations
  • Trace elements
  • Water quality index
  • Health risk assessment
  • Himalayan River Basin