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Assessment of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles in Oreochromis niloticus Using Integrated Biomarkers: Exposure and Recovery

Abstract

The hepatotoxic impacts of 2, 4, and 8 mg/L of Al2O3 nanoparticles (31.4 ± 4.8 nm) were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus after 7 days of exposure and 15 days of recovery periods. The biochemical analysis of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma showed significant increases in both 4 and 8 mg/L Al2O3 NPs exposed groups. The antioxidant biomarkers showed concentration-dependent elevations in catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels. Glutathione reduced contents showed significant reductions in both 4 and 8 mg/L Al2O3 nanoparticles exposed groups. Several hepatic histopathological alterations were recorded ranging from adaptive responses (e.g. melanomacrophages aggregation) to permanent damage (e.g. necrosis). The recovery period using toxicant-free water led to an obvious reduction in the Al content in liver, liver and antioxidant enzymes in addition to regressive histopathological alterations based on the frequency of alterations occurrence and the extent of affected areas.

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Availability of Data and Materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgment

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through Research Group Project under grant number (R.G.P.2/40/40), and to the Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt for supporting the current work.

Funding

Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University and Faculty of Science, Cairo University has funded the present study through the analysis and interpretation of data.

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Abdel-Khalek AA and Massoud E. conceived and designed research. Abdel-Khalek AA and Morsy K.conducted experiments. Abdel-Khalek AA, El-Kott A., and Morsy K. analyzed data. Abdel-Khalek AA wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amr Adel Abdel-Khalek.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Massoud, E., El-Kott, A., Morsy, K. et al. Assessment of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles in Oreochromis niloticus Using Integrated Biomarkers: Exposure and Recovery. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 106, 970–977 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03190-y

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Keywords

  • Aluminum oxide NPs
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Liver enzymes
  • Antioxidant mechanism
  • Histopathology
  • Oreochromis niloticus