Skip to main content

Acartia tonsa Dana 1849 as a Model Organism: Considerations on Acclimation in Ecotoxicological Assays

Abstract

The copepod Acartia tonsa was standardized as model organism in acute toxicity bioassays due to its key position in coastal food chains and high sensitivity. Once bioassays are performed according to a protocol their results may become tools for the protection of aquatic ecosystems. However, there are divergences in bioassays methods using A. tonsa. This study aimed to investigate: (i) the need for acclimation of A. tonsa collected from the environment for use in acute toxicological bioassays; and (ii) differences in sensitivity between copepods collected from the environment and laboratory-grown copepods. Laboratory-grown copepods are more sensitive to SDS than A. tonsa from the environment. The acclimation time of 30 h helped organisms to recover from stress of collection/handling and changing environment/conditions. Therefore, laboratory-grown copepods showed to be more sensitive than organisms from environment; and for ecotoxicological bioassays acclimating A. tonsa collected from the environment for 30 h can be adopted.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. ABNT NBR 16723 - Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (2020) Ecotoxicologia aquática - Método de ensaio com copépodos marinhos (Copepoda, Crustacea). Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas, Rio de Janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alajmi F, Zeng C, Jerry DR (2015) Domestication as a novel approach for improving the cultivation of Calanoid copepods: A case study with Parvocalanus crassirostris. Plos One 10:e0133269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Albert A, Anderson JA (1984) On the existence of maximum likelihood estimates in logistic regression models. Biometrika 71:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Chow-Fraser P (1986) Effect of collection and acclimation period on grazing rates of limnetic zooplankton. Hydrobiologia 137:203–210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. ECHA -European Chemicals Agency (2020) Sodium dodecyl sulphate - Registration Dossier - ECHA. . Accessed 29 Sep 2020

  6. Environment Canada (2007) Biological test method: test for measuring the inhibition of growth using the freshwater macrophyte. In: Lemna minor. Environment Canada, Ottawa

    Google Scholar 

  7. Finiguerra MB, Dam HG, Avery DE, Burris Z (2013) Sex-specific tolerance to starvation in the copepod Acartia tonsa. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 446:17–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Garcia M, Odebrecht C (2008) Morphology and ecology of the planktonic diatom Palmerina hardmaniana (Greville) Hasle in southern Brazil. Biota Neotrop 8:85–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hollister TA, Ward GS, Parrish PR (1980) Acute toxicity of a #6 fuel oil to marine organisms. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24:656–661

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Hothorn T, Bretz F, Westfall P (2008) Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biom J 50:346–363

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Ihara PM, Pinho GLL, Fillmann G (2010) Avaliação do copépodo Acartia tonsa (Dana, 1849) como organismo-teste para ensaios de toxicidade crônica. J Braz Soc Ecotoxicol 5:27–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. ISO 14669 - International Organization for Standardization (1999) Water quality - Determination of acute lethal toxicity to marine copepods (Copepoda, Crustacea). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  13. Klerks PL, Weis JS (1987) Genetic adaptation to heavy metals in aquatic organisms: a review. Environ Pollut 45:173–205

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kwok KWH, Leung KMY, Bao VWW, Lee J-S (2008) Copper toxicity in the marine copepod Tigropus japonicus: low variability and high reproducibility of repeated acute and life-cycle tests. Mar Pollut Bull 57:632–636

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Lacy RC (1987) Loss of genetic diversity from managed populations: interacting effects of drift, mutation, immigration, selection, and population subdivision. Conserv Biol 1:143–158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Lance J (1963) The salinity tolerance of some estuarine planktonic copepods. Limnol Oceanogr 8:440–449

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Lance J (1965) Respiration and osmotic behaviour of the copepod Acartia tonsa in diluted sea water. Comp Biochem Physiol 14:155–165

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Latimer DL, Brooks AS, Beeton AM (1975) Toxicity of 30-minute exposures of residual chlorine to the copepods Limnocalanus macrurus and Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi. J Fish Res Bd Can 32:2495–2501

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Lenth RV (2016) Least-Squares means: the R package lsmeans. J Stat Softw 69:1–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lopes LF, de P, Agostini, Muxagata VO E (2018) Could some procedures commonly used in bioassays with the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1849 distort results? Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 150:353–365

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lugo A, Bravo-Inclán LA, Alcocer J et al (1998) Effect on the planktonic community of the chemical program used to control water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Guadalupe Dam, Mexico. Aquat Ecosyst Health 1:333–343

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Moermond CTA, Kase R, Korkaric M, Ågerstrand M (2016) CRED: Criteria for reporting and evaluating ecotoxicity data. Environ Toxicol Chem 35:1297–1309

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Nipper MG, Badaró-Pedroso C, José VF, Melo SLR (1993) Toxicity testing with coastal species of Southeastern Brazil. Mysids and copepods. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 51:99–106

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Noskov YuA (2011) Comparative sensitivity of the several zooplankton species (Cladocera, Copepoda) to sumicidine-alpha insecticide. Contemp Probl Ecol 4:373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2007) Validation report of the full life-cycle test with the harpacticoid copepods Nitocra Spinipes and Amphiascus tenuiremis and the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa-Phase 1. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Brussels

    Google Scholar 

  26. OECD- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2006) Summary of considerations in the report from the OECD expert groups on short term and long term toxicology, Paris

  27. R Core Team (2020) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  28. Silva P de SR da, Neves LP das, Bemvenuti CE (2008) Temporal variation of sandy beach macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental conditions on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil. Braz J oceanogr 56:257–270

  29. Sosnowski SL, Gentile JH (1978) Toxicological comparison of natural and cultured populations of Acartia tonsa to cadmium, copper, and mercury. J Fish Res Bd Can 35:1366–1369

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Sosnowski SL, Germond DJ, Gentile JH (1979) The effect of nutrition on the response of field populations of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa to copper. Wat Res 13:449–452

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Sun PY, Foley HB, Bao VWW et al (2015) Variation in tolerance to common marine pollutants among different populations in two species of the marine copepod Tigriopus. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:16143–16152

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Tiselius P, Hansen B, Jonsson P et al (1995) Can we use laboratory-reared copepods for experiments? A comparison of feeding behaviour and reproduction between a field and a laboratory population of Acartia tonsa. ICES J Mar Sci 52:369–376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. US EPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency (1976) Acute toxicity of certain pesticides to Acartia tonsa Dana. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Rhode Island

    Google Scholar 

  34. US EPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency (2020) EPI Suite™ - Estimation Program Interface v4.11. . Accessed 29 Sep 2020

Download references

Acknowledgements

We want to thank the Phytoplankton and Microorganism, the CONECO laboratories, and the EMA, all from the Federal University of Rio Grande. We also acknowledge the aid of Dr. Grasiela Lopes Leão Pinho, Dr. Paul Gerhard Kinas, Dr. Renato Mitsuo, and Dr.Paulo José Duarte-Neto on an earlier version of this manuscript.

Funding

This study was funded by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) granting scholarships to L.F.P.L (M.Sc. – 132549/2015-8).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

The conception and design were developed by Laís Fernanda de Palma Lopes, Vanessa O. Agostini and Erik Muxagata. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by Laís Fernanda de Palma Lopes. The original draft preparation was written by Laís Fernanda de Palma Lopes and all authors contributed to the study writing (review and editing). All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The supervision of this study was conducted by Erik Muxagata.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Laís Fernanda de Palma Lopes.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Since this paper does not fall fully within the Aims and Scope of BECT, due to the lack of confirmation of nominal concentrations analytically, it was decided that it should be accepted as a “Concept Note” since it contained some appealing data for our readership. Interestingly, this paper highlights the difference in the sensitivity between A. tonsa collected from the environment and laboratory grown copepods used in aquatic bioassays and the importance of acclimating the collected copepods before exposure. These data further verify the usefulness of using natural populations to confirm if laboratory-based cultures are representative of organisms from the environment.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lopes, L.F.P., Agostini, V.O., Moreira, R.A. et al. Acartia tonsa Dana 1849 as a Model Organism: Considerations on Acclimation in Ecotoxicological Assays. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 106, 734–739 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03175-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Acclimation
  • Bioassay
  • Copepod
  • Acute toxicity
  • Ecotoxicology