Skip to main content

Levels of Metals and Organochlorine Pesticides in Kidney, Liver, and Muscle Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Hatay Province, Eastern Mediterranean Region, Turkey

Abstract

Increases in the levels of environmental contaminants are reflected in wild animals, which are early indicators of pollution. Hatay is an ecologically important region with a high intensity of industrial and agricultural activities. This study aimed to investigate the contamination levels of metals and organochlorine pesticides associated with environmental pollution in tissues of wild boars from Turkey. The highest mean levels (mg kg−1) of metals were 0.05 for As, 0.51 for Cd, 6.30 for Cu, 0.07 for Hg, 0.54 for Ni, and 0.57 for Pb in kidney tissues and 0.22 for Cr, 353.38 for Fe, 2.86 for Mn, and 46.76 for Zn in liver tissues. The Cd and Pb levels exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in some tissues. Among the studied pesticides, only p,p′-DDE contamination was quantified, and the mean levels were 3.6, 0.1, and 0.5 µg kg−1 in liver, kidney, and muscle tissues respectively. In conclusion, Hatay Province requires monitoring in terms of environmentally important contaminants, mainly Cd, Pb, and DDT isomers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Ali H, Khan E, Ilahi I (2019) Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology of hazardous heavy metals: environmental persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. J Chem NY 2019:6730305. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6730305

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Amici A, Danieli PP, Russo C, Primi R, Ronchi B (2012) Concentrations of some toxic and trace elements in wild boar (Sus scrofa) organs and tissues in different areas of the Province of Viterbo, Central Italy. Ital J Anim Sci 11(4):e65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Babicz M, Kropiwiec-Domańska K, Szyndler-Nędza M, Grzebalska AM, Łuszczewska-Sierakowska I, Wawrzyniak A, Hałabis M (2018) Physicochemical parameters of selected internal organs of fattening pigs and wild boars. Ann Anim Sci 18:575–591

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bhat S (2013) Ecotoxicology and impact on biodiversity. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2:1–19

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bilandžić N, Sedak M, Vratarić D, Perić T, Šimić B (2009) Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia. Sci Total Environ 407:4243–4247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bilandžić N, Sedak M, Đokić M, Šimić B (2010) Wild boar tissue levels of cadmium, lead and mercury in seven regions of continental Croatia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84:738–743

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Chiari M, Cortinovis C, Bertoletti M, Alborali L, Zanoni M, Ferretti E, Caloni F (2015) Lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern Italy. Food Addit Contam A 32:1867–1874

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dardaillon M (1987) Seasonal feeding habits of the wild boar in a Mediterranean wetland, the Camargue (Southern France). Acta Theriol 32(23):389–401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. De Roma A, Lucifora G, Picazio G, Marigliano L, Colanera A, Galiero G, Esposito M (2018) Heavy metal organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl occurrence in tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama) from Southern Italy. Large Anim Rev 24:235–239

    Google Scholar 

  10. Demirbaş Y, Erduran N (2017) Concentration of selected heavy metals in brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from central Turkey. Balk J Wildl Res 4:26–33

    Google Scholar 

  11. Desideri D, Meli MA, Cantaluppi C, Ceccotto F, Roselli C, Feduzi L (2012) Essential and toxic elements in meat of wild and bred animals. Toxicol Environ Chem 94:1995–2005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. EC (2006) Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=celex:32006R1881. Accessed 14 Dec 2020

  13. EC (2017) Guidance document on analytical quality control and method validation procedures for pesticide residues and analysis in food and feed. SANTE/11813/2017, 21–22 November 2017 rev. 0. https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/plant/docs/pesticides_mrl_guidelines_wrkdoc_2017-11813.pdf. Accessed 14 Dec 2020

  14. EC (2020) European Commission Pesticide Residue Database. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-db_en. Accessed 14 Dec 2020

  15. Falandysz J, Kannan K (1992) Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in slaughtered and game animal fats from the northern part of Poland. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 195:17–21

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Frenich AG, Bolaños PP, Vidal JL (2007) Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in animal liver by gas chromatography using triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1153:194–202

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Fournier-Chambrillon C, Maillard D, Fournier P (1995) Diet of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) inhabiting the Monpellier garrigue. J Mt Ecol (Ibex) 3:174–179

    Google Scholar 

  18. Gašparík J, Dobias M, Capcarova M, Smehyl P, Slamecka J, Bujko J, Gasparik J Jr (2012) Concentration of cadmium, mercury, zinc, copper and cobalt in the tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunted in the western Slovakia. J Environ Sci Health A 47:1212–1216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gašparík J, Binkowski ŁJ, Jahnátek A, Šmehýl P, Dobiaš M, Lukáč N, Błaszczyk M, Semla M, Massanyi P (2017) Levels of metals in kidney, liver, and muscle tissue and their influence on the fitness for the consumption of wild boar from western Slovakia. Biol Trace Elem Res 177:258–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Inci S, Albayrak I, Wilson CJ (2013) Bioecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758) in Kırıkkale Province, Turkey. Hacet J Biol Chem 41:143–150

    Google Scholar 

  21. Lehotay S (2007) AOAC official method 2007.01 pesticide residues in foods by acetonitrile extraction and partitioning with magnesium sulfate. J AOAC Int 90(2):485–520

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Malik A, Dharaiya N, Espín S (2018) Is current information on organochlorine exposure sufficient to conserve birds in India? Ecotoxicology 27:1137–1149

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Naccari F, Giofre F, Licata P, Martino D, Calo M, Parisi N (2004) Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in wild boars from Calabria (Italy). Environ Monit Assess 96:191–202

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Neila C, Hernández-Moreno D, Fidalgo LE, López-Beceiro A, Soler F, Pérez-López M (2017) Does gender influence the levels of heavy metals in liver of wild boar? Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 140:24–29

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Niewiadowska A, Kiljanek T, Semeniuk S, Żmudzki J (2013) Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in game animals from Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 57:197–201

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Piskorová L, Vasilková Z, Krupicer I (2003) Heavy metal residues in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Central Zemplin region of the Slovak Republic. Czech J Anim Sci 48:134–138

    Google Scholar 

  27. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2011) Turkish Food Codex, contaminants regulation. https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2011/12/20111229M3-8-1.pdf. Accessed 14 Dec 2020

  28. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2016) Turkish Food Codex, regulation of maximum residue limits of pesticides. https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/11/20161125M1-1.htm. Accessed 14 Dec 2020

  29. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2019) Prohibited plant protection products active substance list. https://www.tarimorman.gov.tr/Konu/934/Yasaklanan-Bitki-Koruma-Urunleri-Aktif-Madde-Listesi. Accessed 14 Dec 2020

  30. Sander LC, Schantz MM, Wise SA (2017) Environmental analysis: persistent organic pollutants. In: Liquid chromatography, pp 401–449. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805392-8.00014-1

  31. Srebočan E, Crnić AP, Kabalin AE, Lazarus M, Tomljanović K, Perović S, Čož-Rakovac R (2011) Cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in tissues of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from lowland Croatia. Czech J Food Sci 29:624–633

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ (2012) Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. In: Luch A (ed) Molecular, clinical and environmental toxicology. Experientia supplementum. Springer, Basel, pp 133–164. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  33. Tomza-Marciniak A, Marciniak A, Pilarczyk B, Drozd R, Ligocki M, Prokulewicz A (2014) Wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a bioindicator of organochlorine compound contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of West Pomerania Province, NW Poland. Environ Monit Assess 186:229–238

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Tsygankov VY (2019) Organochlorine pesticides in marine ecosystems of the Far Eastern Seas of Russia (2000–2017). Water Res 161:43–53

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. UNEP (2017) Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). http://www.pops.int/TheConvention/Overview/TextoftheConvention/tabid/2232/Default.aspx. Accessed 14 Dec 2020

  36. USEPA (2001) Method 200.7, Revision 5.0. Trace elements in water, solids, and biosolids by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, EPA 821-R-01-010, 2001

  37. Yarsan E, Yipel M, Dikmen B, Altıntaş L, Ekici H, Köksal A (2014) Concentrations of essential and non-essential toxic trace elements in wild boar (Sus Scrofa L., 1758) tissues from Southern Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 92:10–14

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Yipel M, Tekeli IO (2016) Potential toxicological risks of industrial heavy metals on wildlife ecology: a review to draw attention to an important ecological region. In: International conference on advanced materials and systems (ICAMS). The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather-INCDTP, pp 309–313

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by Scientific Research Projects Coordination of Hatay Mustafa Kemal University (Project Number 18.M.020).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ibrahim Ozan Tekeli.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tekeli, I.O., Yipel, M., Sengul, S.A. et al. Levels of Metals and Organochlorine Pesticides in Kidney, Liver, and Muscle Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Hatay Province, Eastern Mediterranean Region, Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 106, 257–263 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-03072-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • Organic chlorinated pesticides
  • Wild boar
  • Hatay Province
  • Turkey