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Metal Contamination of Groundwater Sources in the Environs of a Tropical Estuary in South India


The study was conducted to evaluate the metal pollution of groundwater sources in the residential areas in the surroundings of Kadinamkulam estuary, South India using the Heavy metal Pollution Index (HPI). For the study, forty one groundwater samples were collected during pre monsoon season from the dug wells of two gramapanchayaths and the concentration of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Fe were estimated and HPI was determined. Results of HPI show that 16.66% of groundwater sources in Azhoor and 21.73% in Kadinamkulam gramapanchayaths are in the low category and the remaining wells are classified in the high and medium category. The correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the leachates from the Kadinamkulam estuary, agricultural activities and solid wastes dumped in the nearby residential area. So the present study points out the metal pollution causes the degradation of the quality of groundwater which is the drinking water source of these gramapanchayaths.

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The first author gratefully acknowledges University Grants Commission, New Delhi for granting financial assistance as the Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship (UGC-RGNF) to carry out the study. The authors are also thankful to Registrar, University of Kerala for providing the laboratory & library facilities for this study.

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Correspondence to Sonu Sasidharan.

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Sasidharan, S., Jaya, D.S. Metal Contamination of Groundwater Sources in the Environs of a Tropical Estuary in South India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 106, 342–348 (2021).

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  • Heavy metals
  • Kadinamkulm estuary
  • Groundwater
  • HPI