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Phthalates in House and Dormitory Dust: Occurrence, Human Exposure and Risk Assessment

Abstract

Phthalates are one of ubiquitous contaminants in the indoor environment. In this study, we analyzed concentrations and profiles of 9 phthalates in dust samples collected from houses and university dormitories in Nanjing, China. The total concentrations of phthalates in house and dormitory dust ranged from 111.4 to 3599.1 µg/g and 86.1 to 1262.3 µg/g, respectively. Phthalates in house was significantly higher than that in dormitory dust (p < 0.01). Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the three predominant compounds and accounted for more than 98% of total phthalates in the two microenvironments. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, and hazard index (HI) values of DEHP, DBP and DiBP were estimated. Except for adults, the CR of DEHP for four subgroups (infants, toddlers, children, and teenagers) had exceeded the limitation, implying that they are at the risk of exposure to DEHP through dust ingestion.

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Acknowledgements

This work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No: 41907345), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No: 2019M663078), State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse Open Funding Project (Grant No: PCRRF18024).

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Correspondence to Chao Li.

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Xu, S., Li, C. Phthalates in House and Dormitory Dust: Occurrence, Human Exposure and Risk Assessment. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 106, 393–398 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-03058-7

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Keywords

  • Phthalates
  • Indoor dust
  • Oral ingestion
  • Health risk assessment