Skip to main content

The Effects of Silicon and Different Types of Acid Rain on Root Growth and Physiology Activity of Oryza Sativa L. Seedlings


The effect of silicon (Si) and different types of acid rain (AR) on rice seedling roots was elucidated. The results showed different types of AR had different effects. Nitrate AR at pH 3.0 could promote the growth of rice roots, increased the dry weight, improved root phenotype, boosted H2O2 contents and increased peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Sulfate AR at pH 3.0 could significantly inhibit the growth of rice roots, decreased the dry weight, root phenotype, increased H2O2 content and autioxidant enzyme activities. Sulfate-nitrate AR at pH 3.0 spraying had no significant effect on rice roots. Under different types of AR stress, the addition of exogenous Si could significantly promote the growth of rice seedling roots. This results indicated that the effects of rice root caused by AR might be due to not only the types of AR but also the content of Si in soil.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. Abbasi T, Poornima P, Kannadasan T, Abbasi SA (2013) Acid rain: past, present, and future. Int J Environ Eng 5:229–272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Chen J, Wang WH, Liu TW, Wu FH, Zheng HL (2013) Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain. Plant Physiol Bioch 64:41–51.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Gunes A, Inal A, Bagci EG, Pilbeam DJ (2007) Silicon-mediated changes of some physiological and enzymatic parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress in spinach and tomato grown in sodic-B toxic soil. Plant Soil 290:103–114.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ju SM, Yin NN, Wang LP, Zhang CY, Wang YK (2017a) Effects of silicon on Oryza sativa L. seedling roots under simulated acid rain stress. PLoS One 12(3):e0173378.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ju SM, Wang LP, Yin NN, Li D, Wang YK, Zhang CY (2017b) Silicon alleviates simulated acid rain stress of Oryza sativa L. seedlings by adjusting physiology activity and mineral nutrients. Protoplasma 254:2071–2081.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ju SM, Wang LP, Zhang CY, Yin TC, Shao SL (2017c) Alleviatory effects of silicon on the foliar micromorphology and anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under simulated acid rain. PLoS One 12(10):e0187021.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kabir AH, Hossain MM, Khatun MA, Mandal A, Haider SA (2016) Role of silicon counteracting cadmium toxicity in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Front Plant Sci 7:1117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Larssen T, Lydersen E, Tang D, He Y, Gao J, Liu H et al (2006) Acid rain in China. Environ Sci Technol 40:418–425.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Li Y, Yu XL, Cheng HB, Lin WL, Tang J, Wang SF (2010) Chemical characteristics of precipitation at three Chinese regional background stations from 2006 to 2007. Atmos Res 96:173–183.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Liang J (2008) A study on effects of acid rain on soil, yield and quality forming of crops in Nanjing, Dissertation. Nanjing University of Information

  11. Liu HY, Ren XQ, Zhu JZ, Wu X, Liang CJ (2018) Effect of exogenous abscisic acid on morphology, growth and nutrient uptake of rice (Oryza sativa) roots under simulated acid rain stress. Planta 248:647–659.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Menchaca L, Hornung M (1989) Response of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to acid rain in situations of species interferences. New Phytol 111:483–489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Ministry of environmental protection of the People’s Republic of China (2017) China environmental status bulletin in 2016. 14–16

  14. Sajedi NA, Ardakani MR, Madani H, Naderi A, Miransari M (2011) The effects of selenium and other micronutrients on the antioxidant activities and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 17: 215–222.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Shao SL, Wang YC, Ju SM (2019) Effects of silicon on the germination, growth and physiology activity of Zea mays L. seedlings under pH stress. J Plant Nutr 42(2):153–163.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Shi QH, Bao ZY, Zhu ZJ, He Y, Qian QQ, Yu JQ (2005) Silicon-mediated alleviation of Mn toxicity in Cucumis sativus in relation to activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Phytochemistry 66(13):1551–1559.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Šimková L, Fialová I, Vaculíková M, Luxová M (2018) The Effect of silicon on the activity and isozymes pattern of antioxidative enzymes of young maize roots under zinc stress. Silicon 10:2907–2910.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Sun Z, Wang L, Zhou Q, Huang X (2013) Effects and mechanisms of the combined pollution of lanthanum and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings. Chemosphere 93:344–352.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Takahashi E, Miyake Y (1976) Distribution of silica accumulator plants in the plant kingdom monocotyledons. J Sci Soil Manure 47:296–300. (in Japanese)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Wang J, Zhou XM, Liu YT, Fang CS (2013) Effects of simulated acid rain on the growth, psychological index and quality of Brassica chinensis L. Hubei Agric Sci 52(16):3791–3795 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Yoshida S, Forno DA, Cock J (1976) Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños

    Google Scholar 

  22. Zhang X, Du Y, Wang L, Zhou Q, Huang X, Sun Z (2015) Combined effects of lanthanum (III) and acid rain on antioxidant enzyme system in soybean roots. PLoS One 10:e0134546.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was funded by the National Spark Plan Project (2013GA690441).

Author information




All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by SJ, YW and NW. The first draft of the manuscript was written by MC. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shuming Ju.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ju, S., Wang, Y., Wang, N. et al. The Effects of Silicon and Different Types of Acid Rain on Root Growth and Physiology Activity of Oryza Sativa L. Seedlings. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 105, 967–971 (2020).

Download citation


  • Acid rain
  • Oryza sativa L.
  • Physiology activity
  • Root growth
  • Silicon