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Freshwater Clam as a Potential Bioindicator for Silver/Saponin Nanocomposites Toxicity

Abstract

Despite the progress in using silver nano products in many fields, including medicine, food, and industry, their effects on the environment need more attention. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the effect of silver/saponin nanocomposites (Ag/S NCs) for the first time on the aquatic environment by using freshwater clam, Caelatura aegyptiaca, as a fundamental bioindicator in the freshwater system. Following the preparation and characterization of Ag/S NCs by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, UV–Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and acute toxicity study, we exposed the clam to three different doses of Ag/S NCs (12.5, 25 and 50 mg L−1) for consecutive 6 days. All Ag/S NCs concentrations caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide while induced a notable decrease in glutathione and catalase levels in all studied organs. Moreover, the histological alternations were observed in gills, labial palp, and foot tissues, particularly at dose 50 mg L−1. From the results of our work, we concluded that toxicity of Ag/S NCs on freshwater clam leads to an oxidative stress response as well as histopathological changes. Besides, we assumed that Coelatura aegyptiaca could be used as a sensitive bioindicator for monitoring water pollution caused by different nanoparticles. Therefore, we do recommend performing further studies by using fresh clam to provide a better assessment for our aquatic environment to prevent water pollution locally and globally.

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Acknowledgements

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through General Research Project under Grant Number (G.R.P–19 –41) and to the Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt for supporting the current work.

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Correspondence to Ayman S. Mohamed.

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Mohamed, A.S., Bin Dajem, S., Al-Kahtani, M. et al. Freshwater Clam as a Potential Bioindicator for Silver/Saponin Nanocomposites Toxicity. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 105, 827–834 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-03038-x

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Keywords

  • Clam
  • Silver/saponin nanoparticles
  • Water pollution
  • Toxicity
  • Coelatura aegyptiaca
  • Oxidative stress