The concentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium owing to vehicles were analyzed in roadside soils during all the four seasons from Faisalabad-Gojra road (M-4) and Gojra-Jhang road (GJR) in the Punjab, Pakistan. Results indicated that all the polluted sites along the roadside had comparatively higher metal concentrations as compared to control, nevertheless, spatio-temporal variations in metal concentrations were apparent in different soil samples. The spatial differences in metal concentrations were strongly associated with vehicle density at the Gojra Interchange site and Forest Park site along M-4 and GJR roads, respectively. Among seasons, metal ions exhibited the following order: summer > autumn > spring > winter, indicating that high temperature might have released more metal ions. The metals were recorded in contaminated soil in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd along both roads. This investigation emphasizes the need for proper environmental management particularly the improvement of roads and proper checking of vehicles running on these regards.
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We are greatly acknowledged the cooperation of Shamim Umer and Sumreen Anjum in data collection. We also acknowledged the Incharge of the Central High-Tech Lab of Agriculture University, Faisalabad, Pakistan, for analysis of heavy metal.
Conflict of interest
I, on the behalf of all co-authors, that I have no conflict of interest with any institution or private sector. This project is a part of my PhD thesis and not funded by any funding agency.
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Batool, H., Hussain, M., Hameed, M. et al. Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Metal Contaminants in Soils Along Two Major Roads. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 105, 111–118 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02899-6
- Gojra Interchange
- Forest Park