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Response Patterns of Biomarkers as Tools to Identify Toxic Effects of Cadmium and Lead on Bufo gargarizans Embryo

Abstract

Molecular biomarkers play an increasing crucial role in evaluating and predicting toxicity of metals. Expressions patterns of genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, immune and inflammation response in the Bufo gargarizans embryo exhibited a development dependent manner. The genes related to oxidative stress (HSP, GPx and SOD) are the first response in the development of embryo, followed by the apoptosis (Bax, BCLAF1 and TRAIL) and inflammation and immune response (SOCS3, IL-27 and IL-17D), respectively. Then, we have verified the HSP, Bax and SOCS3 IL-27 (expressed highest in their respective processes) exhibited the most significant changes in Cd–Pb mixed group compared with control. In addition, we found exposure of Cd–Pb mixed metals causes greater adverse effects than Cd, Pb alone on development and morphology of embryo. Overall, our results provide a useful tool to use the sensitive molecular biomarkers as indicators of developmental toxicity in amphibian embryo.

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Acknowledgements

This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number 31572222), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (Grant Number 2019JM-331).

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Correspondence to Jufang Peng.

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Zheng, R., Wu, M., Wang, H. et al. Response Patterns of Biomarkers as Tools to Identify Toxic Effects of Cadmium and Lead on Bufo gargarizans Embryo. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 105, 41–50 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02884-z

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Keywords

  • Molecular biomarker
  • Oxidative stress
  • Apoptosis
  • Immune
  • B. gargarizans embryo