Skip to main content

Distribution of Trace Metals in Street Dusts and Tree Leaves and Their Source Identification in a Mid-Populated Anatolian City

Abstract

Sivas is a central Anatolian city in Turkey with mid-population. Due to its geographical structure high air pollution episodes can be observed in the atmosphere of Sivas. A study with city wide sampling campaign can help to identify the possible sources. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the multi-elemental and multi-point analysis of trace metals in street dusts and tree leaves in Sivas. In the street dusts, Ca concentration was > 10%. Fe, Cl, and K contribution was 2.5%, 1.75%, and 1.1%, respectively. The average S and Ti concentrations were between 1 and 10 mg/g, I, Mn, Sr, Cr, V, Ba, Zn, Ni, Zr, and Cu were between 1 and 0.1 mg/g, and W, Pb, Sn, Th, Rb, Sb, Co, Bi, As, U were between 0.1 and 0.01 mg/g, in the ascending order. The same elements were investigated for vegetation. Ca, K, S, and Cl were the elements with highest contribution.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Acar R, Demiryürek M (2019) Dust transportation and pastures. Selcuk J Agric Food Sci 33(3):260–266. https://doi.org/10.15316/SJAFS.2019.186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Anil I, Alagha O, Blaisi NI, Mohamed IA, Barghouthi MH, Manzar MS (2019) Source identification of episodic rain pollutants by a new approach: combining satellite observations and backward air mass trajectories. Aerosol Air Qual Res 19:2827–2843. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.04.0187

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Aniszewska M, Gendek A, Drożdżek M, Bożym M, Wojdalski J (2017) Physicochemical properties of seed extraction residues and their potential uses in energy production. Rocz Ochr Śr 19:302–334

    Google Scholar 

  4. Baath HM (2008) Contributions for knowledge of the content in mineral elements from the leaves of three species of Thuja. Lucrări Științifice-Universitatea de Științe Agronomiceși Medicină Veterinară București. Seria B. Horticultură 51:579–582

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bocca B, Alimonti A, Cristaudo A, Cristallini E, Petrucci F, Caroli S (2004) Monitoring of the exposure to platinum-group elements for two Italian population groups through urine analysis. Anal Chim Acta 512:19–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.02.032

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Cindrić IJ, Zeiner M, Starčević A, Stingeder G (2019) Metals in pine needles: characterisation of bio-indicators depending on species. Int J Environ Sci Technol 16:4339–4346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-018-2096-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Dockery DW, Pope CA (1994) Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. Annu Rev Publ Health 15:107–132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.15.050194.000543

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MOC, Egwurugwu JN (2007) Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int J Phys Sci 2:112–118

    Google Scholar 

  9. El-Ramady HR, Domokos-Szabolcsy É, Shalaby TA, Prokisch J, Fári M (2015) Selenium in agriculture: water, air, soil, plants, food, animals and nanoselenium. In: CO2 sequestration, biofuels and depollution. Springer, Cham, pp 153–232. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11906-9_5

  10. Govoni S, Battaini F, Rius RA, Fernicola C, Coniglio L, Trabucchi M (1988) Central nervous system effects of lead: a study model in neurotoxicology. In: Recent advances in nervous system toxicology. Springer, Boston, pp 259–275

  11. Gunawardana C, Goonetilleke A, Egodawatta P, Dawes L, Kokot S (2012) Source characterisation of road dust based on chemical and mineralogical composition. Chemosphere 87:163–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.12.012

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Holoubek I, Kořı́nek P, Šeda Z, Schneiderová E, Holoubková I, Pacl A, Triska J, Cudlin P, Čáslavský J (2000) The use of mosses and pine needles to detect persistent organic pollutants at local and regional scales. Environ Pollut 109:283–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0269-7491(99)00260-2

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Jin Y, O'Connor D, Ok YS, Tsang DC, Liu A, Hou D (2019) Assessment of sources of heavy metals in soil and dust at children's playgrounds in Beijing using GIS and multivariate statistical analysis. Environ Int 124:320–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.024

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Johansson MB (1995) The chemical composition of needle and leaf litter from Scots pine, Norway spruce and white birch in Scandinavian forests. For: Int J For Res 68:49–62. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/68.1.49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Kosiorek M, Modrzewska B, Wyszkowski M (2016) Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment. Environ Monit Assess 188:598. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5600-0

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Kumar P, Khare M, Harrison RM, Bloss WJ, Lewis A, Coe H, Morawska L (2015) New directions: air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi. Atmos Environ 122:657–661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.032

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Kuzu SL, Saral A, Demir S, Summak G, Demir G (2013) A detailed investigation of ambient aerosol composition and size distribution in an urban atmosphere. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2556–2568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1149-9

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Kuzu SL (2019) Source identification of combustion-related air pollution during an episode and afterwards in winter-time in Istanbul. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:16815–16824. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7831-6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Kuzu SL, Cetinkaya AY (2019) Climatological evaluation in a Central Anatolian city and indirect effects of climatological variation on air quality. Air Qual Atmos Health 12:847–854. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-019-00703-x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Luo L, Zhang YY, Xiao HY, Xiao HW, Zheng NJ, Zhang ZY, Xie YJ, Liu C (2019) Spatial distributions and sources of inorganic chlorine in PM2.5 across China in Winter. Atmosphere 10:505. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090505

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Mielke HW, Gonzales CR, Smith MK, Mielke PW (1999) The urban environment and children's health: soils as an integrator of lead, zinc, and cadmium in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Environ Res 81:117–129. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1999.3966

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Nishiyama Y, Otsuka N, Kudo T (2006) Metal dusting behaviour of Cr–Ni steels and Ni-base alloys in a simulated syngas mixture. Corros Sci 48:2064–2083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2005.08.008

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Nuhoglu Y, Bülbül F (2003) Elemental analysis of the ashes of main thermal power plants in Turkey. J Trace Microprobe Tech 21:721–728. https://doi.org/10.1081/TMA-120025822

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Parzych A, Mochnacký S, Sobisz Z, Kurhaluk N, Polláková N (2017) Accumulation of heavy metals in needles and bark of Pinus species. Folia Forestalia Polonica 59:34–44. https://doi.org/10.1515/ffp-2017-0004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Pongrac P, Baltrenaite E, Vavpetič P, Kelemen M, Kladnik A, Budič B, Vogel-Mikuš K, Regvar M, Baltrenas P, Pelicon P (2019) Tissue-specific element profiles in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles. Trees 33:91–101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-018-1761-5

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Kumar AV, Sathe AP, Khandekar RN, Nambi KSV (1999) Assessment of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn exposures of 6-to 10-year-old children in Mumbai. Environ Res 80:215–221. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1998.3919

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Safatov AS, Andreeva IS, Belan BD, Buryak GA, Emel'yanova EK, Jaenicke R, Panchenko MV, Pechurkina MV, Puchkoca LI, Repin VE, Saranina IV, Sergeev AN (2008) To what extent can viable bacteria in atmospheric aerosols be dangerous for humans? Clean: Soil, Air, Water 36:564–571. https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.200700194

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Satarug S, Baker JR, Urbenjapol S, Haswell-Elkins M, Reilly PE, Williams DJ, Moore MR (2003) A global perspective on cadmium pollution and toxicity in non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicol Lett 137:65–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4274(02)00381-8

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Senlin L, Zhenkun Y, Xiaohui C, Minghong W, Guoying S, Jiamo F, Paul D (2008) The relationship between physico chemical characterization and the potential toxicity of fine particulates (PM2.5) in Shanghai atmosphere. Atmos Environ 42:7205–7214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.030

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Sezgin N, Ozcan HK, Demir G, Nemlioglu S, Bayat C (2004) Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway. Environ Int 29:979–985. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00075-8

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Shi D, Lu X (2018) Accumulation degree and source apportionment of trace metals in smaller than 63 μm road dust from the areas with different land uses: a case study of Xi'an, China. Sci Total Environ 636:1211–1218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.385

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Sulaiman FR, Hamzah HA (2018) Heavy metals accumulation in suburban roadside plants of a tropical area (Jengka, Malaysia). Ecol Process 7:28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-018-0139-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Summak G, Ozdemir H, Oruc I, Kuzu L, Saral A, Demir G (2018) Statistical evaluation and predicting the possible sources of particulate matter in a Mediterranean metropolitan city. Glob NEST J 20:173–180

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ (2012) Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. In: Molecular, clinical and environmental toxicology. Springer, Basel, pp 133–164

  35. Turkish Statistical Institute (2019). https://www.turkstat.gov.tr. Accessed 10 Oct 2019

  36. Türkeş M (2010) Climatology and meteorology. First edition, Kriter Publisher – Publication No. 63, Physical Geography Series No. 1, ISBN: 978-605-5863-39-6. İstanbul (in Turkish)

  37. Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė I, Armolaitis K, Stupak I, Kukkola M, Wójcik J, Mikšys V (2014) Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania. Biomass Bioenergy 66:434–441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.03.047

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Wang Q, Lu X, Pan H (2016) Analysis of heavy metals in the re-suspended road dusts from different functional areas in Xi’an, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:19838–19846. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7200-5

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Waisberg M, Joseph P, Hale B, Beyersmann D (2003) Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicology 192:95–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-483x(03)00305-6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Valotto G, Zannoni D, Guerriero P, Rampazzo G, Visin F (2019) Characterization of road dust and resuspended particles close to a busy road of Venice mainland (Italy). Int J Environ Sci Technol 16:6513–6526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02246-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Yilmaz S, Zengin M (2004) Monitoring environmental pollution in Erzurum by chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles. Environ Int 29:1041–1047. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00097-7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Yudovich YE, Ketris MP (2006) Selenium in coal: a review. Int J Coal Geol 67:112–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2005.09.003

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Zhang YM, Bao SX, Liu T, Chen TJ, Huang J (2011) The technology of extracting vanadium from stone coal in China: history, current status and future prospects. Hydrometallurgy 109:116–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2011.06.002

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Zhang J, Wu L, Zhang Y, Li F, Fang X, Mao H (2019) Elemental composition and risk assessment of heavy metals in the PM10 fractions of road dust and roadside soil. Particuology 44:146–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2018.09.003

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge NOAA for supplying the weather records.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yasar Nuhoglu.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 42 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nuhoglu, Y., Yazıcı, M., Nuhoglu, C. et al. Distribution of Trace Metals in Street Dusts and Tree Leaves and Their Source Identification in a Mid-Populated Anatolian City. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 105, 103–110 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02882-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Street dust
  • Leaf
  • Trace metal
  • Source identification
  • PCA