Heavy metal (HM) contamination of the environment is a major issue worldwide, creating an ever-increasing demand for remediation techniques. Remediation with algae offers an ecologically safe, cost-effective, and efficient option for HM removal. Similar to plants, growth and development of algae are controlled by the hormonal system, where phytohormones are involved in HM tolerance and thus can regulate remediation ability; however, the underlying mechanisms of phytohormone function remain elusive. This review aims to draw a comprehensive model of phytohormone contributions to algal performance under HM stress. We focus on the mechanisms of HM biosorption, uptake and intracellular storage, and on how phytohormones interact with algal defence systems under HM exposure. We provide examples of successful utilization of algae in remediation, and of post-processing of algal materials. Finally, we discuss the advantages and risks of using algae for remediation. An in-depth understanding of these processes can inform effective HM remediation techniques.
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This work was conceptualized with the help of Aaron Woodcock. Financial support came from the Ontario Trillium Scholarship for PhD Studies to VS, and from NSERC Discovery Grant No. RGPIN-05436 to RJNE.
Conflict of interest
VS was invited as Assistant Editor for the International Institute for Environmental Studies (IIES) Special Issue. All other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Nguyen, T.Q., Sesin, V., Kisiala, A. et al. The Role of Phytohormones in Enhancing Metal Remediation Capacity of Algae. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 105, 671–678 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02880-3
- Environmental pollution
- Heavy metals