In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term pesticides and chemical fertilizers application on the microbial communities specifically anammox and denitrification bacteria in rice field soils. The abundances of microbial communities (16S rDNA), anammox (hszB), and denitrification (narG, nirK, nirS, and nosZ) genes were quantified by q-PCR. 10 pesticides (5 insecticides, 3 fungicides and 2 herbicides) and chemical fertilizers urea, potassium, phosphate, DAP (di-ammonium phosphate), gypsum, and boric acid were used by local farmers. Nitrate, SOC (ammonia, soil organic carbon), N and C content significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the rice field soils as compared to the upland soils. Abundance of 16S rDNA, hszB, narG, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the rice field soils and positively correlated with chemical properties of soils. Our results provide useful information and further maintenance should be instilled to the potential of chemical and biological factors decreased in rice field soils.
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The authors are grateful to Prodip Kumar Adhikary, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh for checking the English languages and grammatical error. The authors are thankful to the Department of Biotechnology and Genetic engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh for their cordial support to carry out this research. Authors are also grateful to the local farmers for supporting the collection of data.
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Rahman, M.M., Nahar, K., Ali, M.M. et al. Effect of Long-Term Pesticides and Chemical Fertilizers Application on the Microbial Community Specifically Anammox and Denitrifying Bacteria in Rice Field Soil of Jhenaidah and Kushtia District, Bangladesh. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 104, 828–833 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02870-5
- Chemical fertilizers
- Microbial communities
- Anammox and denitrifying bacteria
- Rice field soil