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Acute Toxicity of \(\hbox {Cd}^{2+}\), \(\hbox {Cr}^{6+}\), and \(\hbox {Ni}^{2+}\) to the Golden Mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857)

Abstract

In this study we test the sensitivity of three sizes of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), an introduced species in Argentina, to a 96-h exposure to \(\hbox {Cd}^{2+}\), \(\hbox {Cr}^{6+}\), and \(\hbox {Ni}^{2+}\). We also analysed the relative sensitivity of L. fortunei compared to other freshwater bivalve equivalent sensitivity data. The ANOVA results showed that both factors, heavy metal and size, had significant effects (p = 0.0013 and p = 0.0091, respectively) on the mortality of the golden mussel. Tukey’s test showed significant differences for \(\hbox {Cr}^{6+}\) treatment and the smallest size class (7 mm \(\pm 1\)). The relative sensitivity analysis showed that \(\hbox {LC}_{{50}}\) values for the smallest size class of L. fortunei exposed to \(\hbox {Ni}^{2+}\) and \(\hbox {Cd}^{2+}\) were in the low range, with values of 11.40 mg/L and 12.65 mg/L, respectively. In the case of \(\hbox {Cr}^{6+}\) (1.66 mg/L), its \(\hbox {LC}_{{50}}\) was in the medium-low range of the freshwater bivalve sensitivity distribution.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Faculty of Exact Science of the National University of La Plata (FCEx-UNLP) for providing the space to conduct the experiments involved in this article, and to the reviewers whose valuable observations helped us improve and clarify our manuscript.

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Correspondence to Emiliano Bálsamo Crespo.

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Bálsamo Crespo, E., Pereyra, P.J., Silvestro, A. et al. Acute Toxicity of \(\hbox {Cd}^{2+}\), \(\hbox {Cr}^{6+}\), and \(\hbox {Ni}^{2+}\) to the Golden Mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 104, 748–754 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02854-5

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Keywords

  • Freshwater bivalves
  • Heavy metals
  • Limnoperna fortunei
  • Sensitivity