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Influence of Soil Properties and Aging on Antimony Toxicity for Barley Root Elongation


The study explored the Sb toxicity by investigating the impacts of 10% and 20% effective concentrations (EC10 and EC20, respectively) of Sb on the inhibition of barley root elongation in 21 Chinese soils with a wide range of physicochemical properties after aging for 3 months. The results demonstrated that various soil properties profoundly influenced the Sb toxicity which was ranged from 201–2506 mg Sb kg−1 to 323–2973 mg Sb kg−1 under EC10 and EC20, respectively. Soil sand fraction was a significant soil factor responsible for elevating Sb bioavailability. The bioavailable Sb concentration accounted for 2.08%–11.94% of total Sb content in all 21 soil samples and the decreased Sb bioavailability in this study was attributed to soil properties including soil clay fraction, amorphous and crystalloid iron, and oxides of manganese and aluminum. The findings would contribute in developing Sb toxicity threshold for establishing standard for Sb regulation in crop production.

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This work was funded by National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0800407) and the Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Shanxi Agricultural University (2018YJ26).

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Correspondence to Xu Cui or Yu-Jun Wang.

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The supplementary material section consists of a part of the materials, soil samples and treatment of methods, available Sb content based on single extraction of methods, analysis and data processing, the ratio of (Sb(V)/Sbtot) in extractable Sb, toxicity thresholds of Sb spiked in soils (mg Sb kg−1) measured by barley relative root elongation in 21 Chinese soils (Table S2), correlation coefficients between bioavailable Sb and soil properties (Table S3), physicochemical properties of Chinese soils used in the toxicity tests and the oxidation ratio (Sb(V)/Sbtot) of extractable Sb in different soils aged for 3 months were depicted in (Table. S1 and Table S4). Supplementary file1 (DOCX 42 kb)

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Zhang, P., Wu, TL., Ata-Ul-Karim, S.T. et al. Influence of Soil Properties and Aging on Antimony Toxicity for Barley Root Elongation. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 104, 714–720 (2020).

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  • Antimony
  • Soil properties
  • Barely
  • Toxicity threshold