It was assessed the efficiency of the electrocoagulation (EC) in slaughterhouse wastewater (SW) treatment by using antioxidant parameters of Gammarus pulex. The SW was treated by EC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in G. pulex exposed to pre- and post-treated of the SW during 24 h and 96 h were analysed. Standard methods were applied during the analysing process of the physicochemical quality parameters for both untreated and treated SW. All measured physicochemical parameters were decreased following the treatment process via EC. After the treatment process, it was observed that while SOD activities and MDA levels were decreased, CAT activities were increased and GPx activities did not exhibit any change. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the abilities of untreated SW to promote oxidative stress in model organism. The SOD, CAT activities and MDA levels in G. pulex revealed that EC process were efficient in the SW treatment.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adam O, Degiorgi F, Crini G, Badot PM (2010) High sensitivity of Gammarus sp. Juveniles to deltamethrin: outcomes for risk assessment. Ecotox Environ Safe 73:1402–1407
Allan IJ, Vrana B, Greenwood R, Mills GA, Roig B, Gonzalez C (2006) A ‘Toolbox’ for biological and chemical monitoring requirements for the European Union’s Water Framework Directive. Talanta 69:302–322
Alvarez R, Liden G (2008) Semi-continuous co-digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste, manure, and fruit and vegetable waste. Renew Energ 33:726–734
APHA, AWWA, WEF (2012) Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 22nd edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, 1360 pp
Asselin M, Drogui P, Benmoussa H, Blais JF (2008) Effectiveness of electrocoagulation process in removing organic compounds from slaughterhouse wastewater using monopolar and bipolar electrolytic cells. Chemosphere 72:1727–1733
Banerjee BD, Seth V, Bhattacharya A (1999) Biochemical effects of some pesticides on lipid peroxidation and free-radical scavengers. Toxicol Lett 107:33–47
Belsky AJ, Matzke A, Uselman S (1999) Survey of livestock influences on stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States. J Soil Water Conser 54:419–431
Borković SS, Šaponjić JS, Pavlović SZ, Blagojević DP, Milošević SM (2005) The activity of antioxidant defence enzymes in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Adriatic Sea. Comp Biochem Phy C 141:366–374
Bouraoui Z, Banni M, Chouba L, Ghedira J, Clerandeau C, Jebali J, Narbonne JF, Boussetta H (2010) Monitoring pollution in Tunisian coasts using a scale of classification based on biochemical markers in worms Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor. Environ Monit Assess. 164:691–700
Bustillo-Lecompte CF, Mehrvar M (2015) Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances. J Environ Manage 161:287–302
Bustillo-Lecompte CF, Mehrvar M (2017) Slaughterhouse wastewater: treatment, management and resource recovery. In: Farooq R, Ahmad Z (eds) Physicochemical wastewater treatment and resource recovery. InTech Europe, Rijeka, pp 153–174
Bustillo-Lecompte C, Mehrvar M, Quiñones-Bolaños E (2016) Slaughterhouse wastewater characterization and treatment: An economic and public health necessity of the meat processing industry in Ontario, Canada. J Environ Manage 4:175–186
Cao W, Mehrvar M (2011) Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined anaerobic baffled reactor and UV/H2O2 processes. Chem. Eng. Res. Design 89(7):1136–1143
Carvalho CS, Bernusso VA, Araújo HSS, Espíndola ELG, Fernandes MN (2012) Biomarker responses as indication of contaminant effects in Oreochromis niloticus. Chemosphere 89:60–69
De Lange HJ, Noordoven W, Murk AJ, Lürling M, Peeters ETHM (2006) Behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. Aquat Toxicol 78:209–216
Flohé L (1989) Structure and catalytic mechanism of glutathione peroxidase. In: Taniguchi N, Higashi T, Sakamoto Y, Meister A (eds) Glutathione centennial: molecular perspectives and clinical implications. Academic Press, London, pp 103–114
Gerhardt A, Kienle C, Allan IJ (2007) Biomonitoring with Gammarus pulex at the Meuse (NL), Aller (GER) and Rhine (F) rivers with the online Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor. J Environ Monitor 9:979–985
Ha BM, Huong DTG (2017) Coagulation in treatment of swine slaughterhouse wastewater. GeoSci Engineering 63:15–21
Kutlu HM, Susuz F (2004) Effects of lead as an environmental pollutant on EROD enzyme in Gammarus pulex (L.) (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 72(4):750–755.
Lindesjoo E, Adolfsson-Erici M, Ericson G, Forlin L (2002) Biomarker responses and resin acids in fish chronically exposed to effluents from a total chlorine-free pulp mill during regular production. Ecotox Environ Safe 53:238–247
Lopez-Lopez E, Sedeno-Diaz JE, Soto C, Favari L (2011) Responses of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and Na+/K+-ATPase in liver of the fish Goodea atripinnis exposed to Lake Yuriria water. Fish Physiol Biochem 37:511–522
Martín-Díaz ML, Villena-Lincoln A, Bamber S, Blasco J, DelValls TA (2005) An integrated approach using bioaccumulation and biomarker measurements in female shore crab, Carcinus maenas. Chemosphere 8:615–626
Mittal GS (2003) Characterisation of the effluent wastewater from provincially licensed meat Plants (abattoir) Review. Unpublished report, Toronto, Ontario Ministry of the Environment
Mittal GS (2004) Characterization of the effluent wastewater from abattoirs for land application. Food Rev Int 20:229–256
Ogedey A, Tanyol M (2017) Optimizing electrocoagulation process using experimental design for COD removal from unsanitary landfill leachate. Water Sci Technol 76:2907–2917
Ortega-Villasante C, Rellan-Alvarez R, Del Campo FF, Carpena Ruiz RO, Hernandez LE (2005) Cellular damage induced by cadmium and mercury in Medicago sativa. J Exp Bot 56:2239–2251
Peschke K, Geburzi J, Köhler HR, Wurm K, Triebskorn R (2014) Invertebrates as indicatorsfor chemical stress in sewage-influenced stream systems: toxic and endocrine effects in gammarids and reactions at the community level in two tributaries of Lake Constance, Schussen and Argen. Ecotox Environ Safe 106:115–125
Placer ZA, Cushmann LL, Johnson BC (1966) Estimation of products of lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde) in biochemical systems. Anal Biochem 16:359–364
Saravanan M, Sambhamurth NP, Sivarajan M (2010) Treatment of acid blue 113 dye solution using iron electrocoagulation. Clean-Soil Air Water 38:565–571
Schirling M, Jungmann D, Ladewig V, Nagel R, Triebskorn R, Köhler HR (2005) Endocrine effects in Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda): influence of wastewater effluents, temporal variability, and spatial aspects on natural populations. Arch Envıron Con Tox 49:53–61
Schneider I, Oehlmann J, Oetken M (2015) Impact of an estrogenic sewage treatment plant effluent on life-history traits of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. J Environ Sci Healt A 50:272–281
Seif H, Moursy A (2001) Treatment of slaughterhouse wastes. Sixth International Water Technology Conference, Alexandria, Egypt pp. 269–272.
Serdar O, Yildirim NC, Tatar S, Yildirim N, Ogedey A (2018) Antioxidant biomarkers in Gammarus pulex to evaluate the Efficiency of electrocoagulation process in landfill leachate treatment. Environ Sci Pollut R 25(13):12538–12544
Siedlecka EM, Stolte S, Gołebiowski M, Nienstedt A, Stepnowski P, Thoming J (2012) Advanced oxidation process for the removal of ionic liquids from water: the influence of functionalized side chains on the electrochemical degradability of imidazolium cations. Sep Purif Technol 101:26–33
Sies H (1986) Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 25:1058–1071
Spece RE (1999) Anaerobic biotechnology for industrial wastwater treatment. Water Sci Technol 23:1259–1264
Tatar S, Yildirim NC, Serdar O, Yildirim N, Ogedey A (2018) The using of Gammarus pulex as a biomonitor ine cological risk assessment of secondary effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant in Tunceli. Turkey. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 24(3):819–829
Tezcan U, Koparal AS, Ogutveren UB (2009) Hybrid processes for the treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater using aluminum and iron electrodes. J Hazard Mater 164:580–586
Torkian A, Eqbali A, Hashemian SJ (2003) The effect of organic loading rate on the performance of UASB reactor treating slaughterhouse effluent. Resourc Conserv Recy 40:1–11
Velkova-Jordanoska L, Kostoski G, Jordanoska B (2008) Antioxidative enzymes in fish as biochemical indicators of aquatic pollution. Bulg J Agric Sci 14:235–237
Vioque-Fernández A, Alves de Almeida E, López-Barea J (2009) Assessment of Doñana National Park contamination in Procambarus clarkii: integration of conventional biomarkers and proteomic approaches. Sci Total Environ 407:1784−1797.
Wang B, Zhou LP, Li W (2002) Preliminary studies on the purifying function and its physiological reaction of Potamogeton crispus under different water qualities. J Wuhan Botanical Research 20:150–152
Xi DL, Sun YS, Liu XY (1996) Environment Monitoring. Higher Education Press, Beijingpp, pp 389–391
Yildirim NC, Tanyol M, Yildirim N, Serdar O, Tatar S (2018) Biochemical responses of Gammarus pulex to malachite green solutions decolorized by Coriolus versicolor as a biosorbent under batch adsorption conditions optimized with response surface methodology. Ecotox Environ Safe 156:41–47
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Yildirim, N.C., Tanyol, M., Serdar, O. et al. Gammarus pulex as a Model Organism to Assess the Residual Toxicity of Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treated by Electrocoagulation Process. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 103, 447–452 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-019-02666-2
- Gammarus pulex
- Slaughterhouse wastewater
- Electrocoagulation process
- Oxidative stress
- Water quality