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Enantioselective Behavior of Chiral Difenoconazole in Apple and Field Soil


Difenoconazole is a universal chiral fungicide which is widely used in apples. Recently, it is still employed as racemic mixtures without distinction of the enantiomers, which may lead to an incomplete risk assessment. Here, we analyzed the stereoselective degradation of difenoconazole in apple fruits and open-field soil using an HPLC–UV system. Different trends were established in various apple varieties under identical environmental conditions. No significant differences were found in its enantioselectivity of the degradation processes applied in the field soil of an apple orchard. However, preferential dissipation of (2R,4R)-difenoconazole and (2R,4S)-difenoconazole was observed in Hanfu and Fuji apples, resulting in the enrichment of stereoisomers of (2S,4S)-difenoconazole and (2S,4R)-difenoconazole. Meanwhile, no significant enantioselectivity was detected in Huahong apples. The present study will provide additional information that contributes to the comprehensive evaluation of the risks posed by the application of chiral difenoconazole in agricultural production practices.

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This work was supported by the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-27), the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS-ASTIP), and the National Program for Quality and Safety Risk Assessment of Agricultural Products of China (GJFP2017003, GJFP2018003).

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Correspondence to Jiyun Nie.

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Chang, W., Nie, J. & Yan, Z. Enantioselective Behavior of Chiral Difenoconazole in Apple and Field Soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 103, 501–505 (2019).

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  • Difenoconazole
  • Enantioselectivity
  • Apples
  • Field soil