The residual activity of herbicides may be detrimental to the environment, requiring analysis of the persistent residues in the soil and water. A field study was conducted to measure the residues of Imidazolinone (IMI) in three Clearfield® rice field soils at three different locations in Malaysia. The analyses of IMI in the soil samples were carried out using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These herbicides are widely used; however, few studies have been conducted on both residues, especially in the context of Malaysian soil. Residues of imazapic and imazapyr were found to fall within 0.03–0.58 µg/mL and 0.03–1.96 µg/mL, respectively, in three locations. IMI herbicides are persistent in the soil, and their residues remain for up to 85 days after application. A pre-harvest study was suggested for these herbicides on water, which will provide a clearer indicator on the use of IMI in Clearfield® rice fields.
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The authors would like to thank the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS): FP001-2015A and the University Malaya Research Grant (UMRG): (RG 311-14AFR) and (RF006A-2018).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Bzour, M., Zuki, F.M., Mispan, M.S. et al. Determination of the Leaching Potential and Residues Activity of Imidazolinone Herbicide in Clearfield Rice Soil Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 103, 348–353 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-019-02625-x