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Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Bosnia and Herzegovina Using Epiphytic Lichen Hypogymnia physodes


The aim of the study was to assess heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) air pollution in Bosnia and Herzegovina by using a lichen, Hypogymnia physodes. Metal content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and was between very high naturality or alteration to middle naturality or alteration. Strong correlations between Cr and Ni confirmed mainly anthropogenic sources. The scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, V, Co, As, Sn, Sb, Hg and Bi were performed on the lichen surface and hyphae of the transplanted samples. Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in lichen indicates the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due to anthropogenic and natural sources such as soil.

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Correspondence to Jasna Huremović.

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Ramić, E., Huremović, J., Muhić-Šarac, T. et al. Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Bosnia and Herzegovina Using Epiphytic Lichen Hypogymnia physodes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 102, 763–769 (2019).

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  • Biomonitoring
  • Air pollution
  • Hypogymnia physodes
  • Heavy metals
  • FAAS