The primary degradation of benzene derivatives in aquatic environments occurs via microbial and chemical processes. This study investigated the kinetic degradation of o-ethyltoluene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the wetland of Lake Naivasha. Sediment samples were collected from 6:00 AM to 6:00 PM at intervals of 3 h during the dry season of December 2017. The sediment samples were air dried, ground into powder, followed by soxhlet extraction in a binary mixture of methanol and hexane in the ratio of 1:1. The extract was analyzed using gas chromatograph with mass selective detector. Variation in the concentrations of o-ethyltoluene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene with time was monitored kinetically. Accordingly, the half-lives for the degradation of o-ethyltoluene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were 4.9 and 5.4 h, respectively, and their corresponding decay rate constants were 3.93 × 10−5 and 3.56 × 10−5 S−1. 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene was the most persistent contaminants in the wetland.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bertilsson S, Widenfalk A (2002) Photochemical degradation of PAHs in freshwaters and their impact on bacterial growth–influence of water chemistry. Hydrobiologia 469(1):23–32. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015579628189
Cao B, Nagarajan K, Loh KC (2009) Biodegradation of aromatic compounds: current status and opportunities for biomolecular approaches. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85 (2):207–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-009-2192-4
Cao Q, Wang R, Zhang H, Ge X, Liu J (2015) Distribution of organic carbon in the sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River constructed wetland, China. PLoS ONE 10(7):1–12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134713
Cremonesi G, Croce PD, Fontana F, La Rosa C (2010) Enantiomerically pure polyheterocyclic spiro-β-lactams from trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline. J Org Chem 75(6):2010–2017. https://doi.org/10.1021/jo100061s
Eggen T, Moeder M, Arukwe A (2010) Municipal landfill leachates: a significant source for new and emerging pollutants. Sci Total Environ 408(21):5147–5157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.049
Gu G, Yang T, Yu O, Qian H, Wang J, Wen J, Dang L, Zhang X (2017) Enantioselective iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of α-keto amides to α-hydroxy amides. Org Lett 19(21):5920–5923. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.7b02912
Jindrova E, Chocova M, Demnerova K, Brenner V (2002) Bacterial aerobic degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 47(2):83–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02817664
Khalade A, Jaakkola MS, Pukkala E, Jaakkola JJK (2010) Exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health 9(1):31. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-9-31
Kibet JK, Khachatryan L, Dellinger B (2013) Molecular products from the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of tyrosine. Chemosphere 91(7):1026–1034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.01.071
Kibet JK, Bennadji H, Asatryan R, Khachatryan L (2016) Health and environmental impacts of phenol: the role of radicals. Nover Science Publishers, New York
Le Borgne S, Paniagua D, Vazquez-Duhalt R (2008) Biodegradation of organic pollutants by halophilic bacteria and archaea. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 15(2–3):74–92. https://doi.org/10.1159/000121323
Negritto MC, Valdez C, Sharma J, Rosenberg C, Selassie CR (2017) Growth inhibition and DNA damage induced by X-phenols in yeast: a quantitative structure–activity relationship study. ACS Omega 2(12):8568–8579. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.7b01200
Otieno PO, Schramm KW, Pfister G, Lalah JO, Ojwach SO, Virani M (2012) Spatial distribution and temporal trend in concentration of carbofuran, diazinon and chlorpyrifos ethyl residues in sediment and water in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88(4):526–532. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0529-7
Scheringer M (2009) Long-range transport of organic chemicals in the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 28(4):677–690. https://doi.org/10.1897/08-324R.1
Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (2016) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 1–1152
Seo JS, Keum YS, Li QX (2009) Bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6(1):278–309. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph6010278
Smith AM, Kirisits MJ, Reible DD (2012) Assessment of potential anaerobic biotransformation of organic pollutants in sediment caps. N Biotechnol 30(1):80–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2012.06.003
Snyder R, Witz G, Goldstein BD (1993) The toxicology of benzene. Environ Health Perspect 100:293–306
Weelink SAB, van Eekert MHA, Stams AJM (2010) Degradation of BTEX by anaerobic bacteria: physiology and application. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 9(4):359–385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-010-9219-2
The authors are grateful to Prof. Vincent Nyamori of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Engineering and Science for facilitating the GC-MS data reported in this work. NRF Kenya is thanked for partially funding this study.
The authors declare they have no competing interests regarding the publication of this article.
About this article
Cite this article
Laurence, M., Kibet, J.K. & Ngari, S.M. The Degradation of O-ethyltoluene and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene in Lake Naivasha Wetland, Kenya. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 101, 288–293 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2387-4
- Benzene derivatives
- Decay rate