Concentrations were measured three times from 2006 to 2013 at major harbors and marine areas along the Korean coast. The Cu concentration in seawater and sediments increased, while the Zn concentration first decreased and then increased. The pattern of increase in Cu concentration with time was consistent with the increased total tonnage of ships moored at the sampling area and with the increased discharge of organic antifouling agents. To confirm the relationship between seawater and marine sediments in heavy metal pollution, all data were arrayed and compared depending on concentrations. The results revealed that the slope of Cu between seawater and marine sediment rapidly decreased, attributed to the increase in the application of copper-based antifouling agents to vessels after the ban on the use of tributyltin in 2008, rather than the contamination caused by industrial areas.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Clesceri LS, American Public Health Association (2005) Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, vol. 21. APHA, Washington, DC
Kljaković-Gašpić Z, Bogner D, Ujević I (2009) Trace metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni) in sediment of the submarine pit Dragon Ear (Soline Bay, Rogoznica, Croatia). Environ Geol 58:751–760
Lee SE, Lee YW (2016) Determination of the concentrations of alternative antifouling agents on the Korean coast. Mar Pollut Bull 113:253–257
Omae I (2003) General aspects of tin-free antifouling paints. Chem Rev 103:3431–3448
Pavoni B, Centanni E, Valcanover S, Fasolato M, Ceccato S, Tagliapietra D (2007) Imposex levels and concentrations of organotin compounds (TBT and its Metabolites) in Nassarius Nitidus from the Lagoon of Venice. Mar Pollut Bull 55(10–12):505–511
SPIDC (Shipping & Port Internet Data Center) (2014) Arrival of vessels by Tonnage. https://www.spidc.go.kr:10443/com/url/engMainURL.do. Accessed 12 Dec 2017
US EPA (2011) Project, NP00946501-4: safer alternatives to copper antifouling paints for marine vessels FINAL REPORT 2011
Yao H, Zhuang W, Qian Y, Xia BS, Yang Y, Qian X (2016) Estimating and predicting metal concentration using online turbidity values and water quality models in two rivers of the Taihu Basin, Eastern China. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0152491
Yebra DM, Kill S, Dam-Job Ansen K (2004) Antifouling technology past, present and further steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Prog Org Coat 50:75–104
Ytreberg E, Karlsson J, Eklund B (2010) Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater. Sci Total Environ 408:2459–2466
About this article
Cite this article
Lee, S., Chung, J. & Lee, YW. Cu and Zn Concentrations in Seawater and Marine Sediments Along Korean Coasts from the Perspective of Antifouling Agents. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 101, 185–190 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2380-y
- Alternative antifouling agents
- Marine sediments