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Acute Toxicity of Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate to Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Postlarvae in Low-Salinity Water

Abstract

Shrimp farming in low salinities waters is an alternative to increasing production, and counteracting disease problems in brackish and marine waters. However, in low-salinity waters, toxicity of nitrogen compounds increases, and there is no available data of its acute toxicity in shrimp postlarvae. This study determined the acute toxicity of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae in 1 and 3 g/L salinity, as well as the safety levels. The LC50 confirms that nitrite is more toxic than ammonia and nitrate in low salinity waters, and that its toxicity increases with a decrease in salinity. The safe levels estimated for salinities of 1 and 3 g/L were 0.54 and 0.81 mg/L for total ammonia–N, 0.17 and 0.25 mg/L for NO2–N, and 5.6 and 21.5 mg/L for NO3–N, respectively.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank H. Bojórquez-Leyva and G. Ramírez-Reséndiz for the assistance in the chemical and statistical analysis, respectively. Special gratitude is to Fitmar Company México who provided the organisms for this study. Study supported by the program UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT IN201916 Evaluación de efectos letales y subletales de amonio, nitrito y nitratos en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei en aguas de baja salinidad.

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Correspondence to Federico Páez-Osuna.

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Valencia-Castañeda, G., Frías-Espericueta, M.G., Vanegas-Pérez, R.C. et al. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate to Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Postlarvae in Low-Salinity Water. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 101, 229–234 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2355-z

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Keywords

  • Acute toxicity
  • Litopenaeus vannamei
  • Ammonia
  • Nitrite
  • Nitrate
  • Safe level