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Temporal Variation of Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) in Ambient Atmosphere of Delhi

Abstract

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a group of chemical species, ubiquitously present in the environment and pose a serious risk to humans. In the present study, the average concentrations of PAEs in PM10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 µm) are reported at a densely populated site in Delhi. The average concentration of PAEs was reported to be 703.1 ± 36.2 ng m−3 with slightly higher concentrations in winter than in summer; suggesting that sources are relatively stable over the whole year. The average concentration of PAEs was 35.7 ± 30.5 ng m−3 in winter, 35.4 ± 27.0 ng m−3 in summer, 3.4 ± 1.5 ng m−3 in monsoon and 7.5 ± 5.2 ng m−3 in post-monsoon. Principal component analysis was performed, which suggested that emissions were mainly due to plasticizers, cosmetics and personal care products, municipal solid waste, thermal power stations, industrial wastewater, cement plants and coke ovens.

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Correspondence to Ranu Gadi.

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Gupta, S., Gadi, R. Temporal Variation of Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) in Ambient Atmosphere of Delhi. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 101, 153–159 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2337-1

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Keywords

  • Phthalic acid esters
  • Particulate matter
  • Seasonal variation
  • Principal component analysis
  • Urban pollution