Advertisement

Total and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Antarctic Toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni): Health Risk Assessment

  • Minchul Yoon
  • Mi Ra Jo
  • Poong Ho Kim
  • Woo Seok Choi
  • Sang In Kang
  • Seok Gwan Choi
  • Jong Hee Lee
  • Hee Chung Lee
  • Kwang Tae Son
  • Jong Soo Mok
Article

Abstract

The concentrations of total mercury (THg) in different organs of the Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) collected from CCAMLR research blocks in Subarea 88.3 and Division 58.4.1 off the coast of Antarctica were determined. The results revealed THg concentrations of 0.165 ± 0.095 mg/kg (0.023–0.454 mg/kg, wet weight) in the Antarctic toothfish. In muscle, methyl mercury (MeHg) accounted for approximately 40% of the THg. In a comparison analysis, muscle and liver tended to bioaccumulate the highest levels of THg, and both THg and MeHg contents showed correlations with fish length and weight. Compared with international guidelines, fish contained 2.5–6.4% and 4.0–10.3% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake for THg recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and the tolerable weekly intake for MeHg proposed by the European Food Safety Authority, respectively. These results suggest that consumption of the Antarctic toothfish presents no health risk to humans.

Keywords

Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni Total mercury Methylmercury International guidelines 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Fisheries Science in Korea (R2018056).

References

  1. Agusa T, Kunito A, Sudaryanto T, Monirith SK, Klap A, Iwata H (2007) Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia. Environ Pollut 145:266–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AMAP (2011) Arctic pollution 2011. Arctic monitoring and assessment programme, Oslo (vi+ pp 38. ISBN 13 978-82-7971-066-0)Google Scholar
  3. AOAC International (2002) AOAC guidelines for single laboratory validation of chemical methods for dietary supplements and botanicals. AOAC International, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloom NS (1992) On the chemical form of mercury in edible fish and marine invertebrate tissue. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:1010–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bravo AG, Cosio C, Amouroux D, Zopfi J, Chevalley P-A, Spangenberg JE, Ungureanu V-G, Dominik J (2014) Extremely elevated methyl mercury levels in water, sediment and organisms in a Romanian reservoir affected by release of mercury from a chlor-alkali plant. Water Res 49:391–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CAC (2009) CODEX STAN 193–1995. Codex general Standard for contaminants and Toxins in food and feedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cascorbi A (2002) Seafood watch, seafood report: Chilean seabass: Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) and Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Draft Report No. 1, Monterey Bay Aquarium, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. CCAMLR (2011) Scientific observers manual. CCAMLR, HobartGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaulk A, Stern GA, Armstrong D, Barber DG, Wang F (2011) Mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface in the Arctic Ocean. Environ Sci Technol 45:1866–1872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cizdziel J, Hinners T, Cross C, Pollard J (2003) Distribution of mercury in the tissues of five species of freshwater fish from Lake Mead, USA. J Environ Monit 5:802–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cossa D, Heimbuerger L-E, Lannuzel D, Rintoul SR, Butler ECV, Bowie AR, Averty B, Watson RJ, Remenyi T (2011) Mercury in the southern ocean. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:4037 – 4052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EC (2008) Regulation (EC) no 629//2008 of 2 July 2008 amending regulation (EC) no 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffsGoogle Scholar
  13. EFSA (2012) Scientific Opinion on the risk for public health related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food. EFSA J 10:2985Google Scholar
  14. FAO (2013) Consumption of Fish and Fishery Products 2013. http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-consumption/en. Accessed 08 Jun 2017
  15. Fisher NS, Hook SE (2002) Toxicology tests with aquatic animals need to consider the trophic transfer of metals. Toxicology 182:531–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. FSANZ (2004) Mercury in fish. Food Standards Australia and New Zealand, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  17. Gionfriddo CM, Tate MT, Wick RR, Schultz MB, Zemla A, Thelen MP, Schofield R, Krabbenhoft DP, Holt KE, Moreau JW (2016) Microbial mercury methylation in Antarctic sea ice. Nat Microbiol 1:16127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldsworthy SD, Lewis M, Williams R, He X, Young JW, van den Hoff J (2002) Diet of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) around Macquarie Island, South Pacific Ocean. NZ Mar Freshw Res 53:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hanchet SM, Tracey D, Dunn A, Horn P, Smith N (2012) Mercury concentrations of two toothfish and three of its prey species from the Pacific sector of the Antarctic. Antarct Sci 24:34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hogstrand C, Haux C (1990) Metallothionein as an indicator of heavy-metal exposure in two subtropical fish species. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 138:69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Honda K, Sahrul M, Hidaka H, Tatsukawa R (1983) Organ and tissue distribution of heavy metals, and their growth-related changes in Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki. Agric Biol Chem 47:2521–2532Google Scholar
  22. Horn PL (2002) Age and growth of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and Antarctic toothfish (D. mawsoni) in waters from the New Zealand subantractic to the Ross Sea. Antarct Fish Res 56:275–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. JECFA (2003) Summary and conclusions of the 61st meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). JECFA/61/SC, RomeGoogle Scholar
  24. JECFA (2011) Evaluation of certain contaminants in food. The seventy-second report. WHO, Geneva, pp 1–115Google Scholar
  25. Kannan K, Smith RG, Lee RF Jr, Windom HL, Heitmuller PT, Macauley JM, Summers JK (1998) Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment, and fish from south Florida estuaries. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 34:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kucuksezgin F, Uluturhan E, Kontas A, Altay O (2002) Trace metal concentrations in edible fishes from Izmir Bay, Eastern Aegean. Mar Pollut Bull 44:816–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McArthur T, Butler ECV, Jackson GD (2003) Mercury in the marine food chain in the Southern Ocean at Macquarie Island: an analysis of a top predator, Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and a mid-trophic species, the warty squid (Moroteuthis ingens). Polar Biol 27:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Méndez E, Giudice H, Pereira A, Inocente G, Medina D (2001) Preminary report on the total mercury content of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichos eleginoide). J Food Compos Anal 14:547–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Peng X, Liu F, Wang WX (2016) Organ-specific accumulation, transportation, and elimination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in a low Hg accumulating fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 35:2074–2083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soerensen AL, Mason RP, Balcom PH, Jacob DJ, Zhang Y, Kuss J, Sunderland EM (2014) Elemental mercury concentrations and fluxes in the tropical atmosphere and ocean. Environ Sci Technol 48:11312–11319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Son KT, Kwon JY, Jo MR, Yoon M, Song KC, Choi WS, Yeon IJ, Kim JH, Lee TS (2014) Total mercury contents of Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus Mawsoni caught in the Antarctic Sea. Fish Aquat Sci 17:427–431.  https://doi.org/10.5657/FAS.2014.0427 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stevens DW (2006) Stomach contents of sub-adult Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) from the western Ross Sea, Antarctica. Document WG-FSA-06/27. CCAMLR, Hobart, p 15Google Scholar
  33. Tom M, Chen N, Segev M, Herut B, Rinkevich B (2004) Quantifying fish metallothionein transcript by real time PCR for its utilization as an environmental biomarker. Mar Pollut Bull 48(7):705–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. UNEP (2002) Global mercury assessment. UNEP Chemicals, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  35. US FDA (2010) Mercury levels in commercial fish and shellfishGoogle Scholar
  36. Walpole SC, Prieto-Merino D, Edwards P, Cleland J, Stevens G, Roberts I (2012) The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass. BMC Public Health 12:439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wintle NJP, Sleadd IM, Gundersen DT, Kohl K, Buckley BA (2015) Total mercury in six Antarctic Notothenioid fishes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 95:557–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Safety and Processing Research DivisionNational Institute of Fisheries ScienceBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.South-East Sea Fisheries Research InstituteNational Institute of Fisheries ScienceTongyeongRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Seafood and Aquaculture Science/Institute of Marine IndustryGyeongsang National UniversityTongyeongRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Distant-Water Fisheries Resources DivisionNational Institute of Fisheries ScienceBusanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations