Matrix Effect Evaluation and Method Validation of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole Residues in Red Flesh Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Matrices Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation Methods Followed by LC–MS/MS Determination

  • Sri Noegrohati
  • Elan Hernadi
  • Syanti Asviastuti


Production of red flesh dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) was hampered by Colletotrichum sp. Pre-harvest application of azoxystrobin and difenoconazole mixture is recommended, therefore, a selective and sensitive multi residues analytical method is required in monitoring and evaluating the commodity’s safety. LC–MS/MS is a well-established analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative determination in complex matrices. However, this method is hurdled by co-eluted coextractives interferences. This work evaluated the pH effect of acetate buffered and citrate buffered QuEChERS sample preparation in their effectiveness of matrix effect reduction. Citrate buffered QuEChERS proved to produce clean final extract with relative matrix effect 0.4%–0.7%. Method validation of the selected sample preparation followed by LC–MS/MS for whole dragon fruit, flesh and peel matrices fortified at 0.005, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 g/g showed recoveries 75%–119%, intermediate repeatability 2%–14%. The expanded uncertainties were 7%–48%. Based on the international acceptance criteria, this method is valid.


Azoxystrobin Difenoconazole Dragon fruit Matrix effect QuEChERS-LC–MS/MS 



High appreciation is extended to Dr. Wayne Jiang and Prof. Dr. Arpad Ambrus for their assistance in this GLP analytical study. This study is part of the STDF/PG/337 Magnitude of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole Residues in Dragon fruit, a project funded by Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF), World Trade Organization.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sri Noegrohati
    • 1
  • Elan Hernadi
    • 2
  • Syanti Asviastuti
    • 2
  1. 1.Program Pascasarjana, Fakultas FarmasiUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Plant Product Quality Testing Center, Directorate of Food Crops, Ministry of AgricultureJakartaIndonesia

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