Particle Size Distribution of Heavy Metals and Magnetic Susceptibility in an Industrial Site

  • Shamsollah Ayoubi
  • Zeynab Soltani
  • Hossein Khademi


This study was conducted to explore the relationships between magnetic susceptibility and some soil heavy metals concentrations in various particle sizes in an industrial site, central Iran. Soils were partitioned into five fractions (< 28, 28–75, 75–150, 150–300, and 300–2000 µm). Heavy metals concentrations including Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Ni and Mn and magnetic susceptibility were determined in bulk soil samples and all fractions in 60 soil samples collected from the depth of 0–5 cm. The studied heavy metals except for Pb and Fe displayed a substantial enrichment in the < 28 µm. These two elements seemed to be independent of the selected size fractions. Magnetic minerals are specially linked with medium size fractions including 28–75, 75–150 and 150–300 µm. The highest correlations were found for < 28 µm and heavy metals followed by 150–300 µm fraction which are susceptible to wind erosion risk in an arid environment.


Heavy metals Steel company Enrichment Magnetic properties Arid soils 



The authors would like to thank Isfahan University of Technology for the financial support of this study.


  1. Ajayi A, Kamson OF (1983) Determination of lead in roadside dust in Lagos city by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Environ Int 9:397–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angulo E (1996) The Tomlinson Pollution Load Index applied to heavy metal, ‘Mussel–Watch’ data: a useful index to assess coastal pollution. The Sci Total Environ 187:19–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asgari N, Ayoubi S, Dematte JAM (2018) Soil drainage identification by magnetic susceptibility measures in Juneqan district, western Iran. Geoderma Regional (in press)Google Scholar
  4. Ayoubi S, Ahmadi M, Abdi MR, Abbaszadeh Afshar F (2012) Relationships of Cs-137 inventory with magnetic measures of calcareous soils of hilly region in Iran. J Environ Radioact 112:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayoubi S, Amiri S, Tajik S (2014) Lithogenic and anthropogenic impacts on soil surface magnetic susceptibility in an arid region of central Iran. Arch Agron Soil Sci 60:1467–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caitcheon G (1993) Sediment source tracing using environmental magnetism: a new approach with examples from Australia. Hydrol Process 7:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Canbay M, Aydin A, Kurtulus C (2010) Magnetic susceptibility and heavy-metal contamination in topsoils along the Izmit Gulf coastal area and IZAYTAS (Turkey). J Appl Geophy 70:46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan LS, Yeung CH, Yim WWS, Or OL (1998) Correlation between magnetic susceptibility and distribution of heavy metals in contaminated sea-floor sediments of Hong Kong Harbour. Environ Geol 36:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dankoub Z, Ayoubi S, Khademi H, Lu SG (2012) Spatial distribution of magnetic properties and selected heavy metals as affected by land use in calcareous soils of the Isfahan region, central Iran. Pedosphere 22:33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hays MD, Cho SH, Baldauf R, Schauer JJ, Shafer M (2011) Particle size distributions of metal and non-metal elements in an urban near-highway environment. Atmos Environ 45:925–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karimi R, Ayoubi S, Jalalian A, Sheikh-Hosseini AR, Afyuni M (2011) Relationships between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoils in the arid region of Isfahan, central Iran. J Appl Geophys 74:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Karimi AR, Khademi H, Ayoubi S (2013) Magnetic susceptibility and morphological characteristics of a loess–paleosol sequence in northeastern Iran. Catena 101:56–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lecoanet H, Lévêque F, Ambrosi JP (2001) Magnetic properties of salt-marsh soils contaminated by iron industry emissions (southeast France). J Appl Geophys 48:67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Freund R, Littell R (2000) SAS system for regression, 3rd edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  15. Lu SG, Bai SQ (2006) Study on the correlation of magnetic properties and heavy metals content in urban soils of Hangzhou City, China. J Appl Geophy 60:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Magiera T, Kapička A, Petrovsky E, Strzyszcz Z, Fialova H, Rachwa M (2008) Magnetic anomalies of forest soils in the Upper Silesia–Northern Moravia region. Environ Pollut 156: 618–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maher BA (1986) Characterization of soils by mineral magnetic measurements. Phys Earth Planet Inter 42:76–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mico C, Recatala L, Peris M, Sanchez J (2006) Assessing heavy metal sources in agricultural soils of an European Mediterranean area by multivariate analysis. Chemosphere 65:863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mokhtari Karchegani P, Ayoubi S, Lu SG, Honarju N (2011) Use of magnetic measures to assess soil redistribution following deforestation in hilly region. J Appl Geophys 75:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Naderizadeh Z, Khademi H, Ayoubi S (2016) Biomonitoring of atmospheric heavy metals pollution using dust deposited on date palm leaves in southwestern Iran. Atmósfera 29(2):141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Naimi S, Ayoubi S (2013) Vertical and horizontal distribution of magnetic susceptibility and metal contents in an industrial district of central Iran. J Appl Geophy 96:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rahimi MR, Ayoubi S, Abdi MR (2013) Magnetic susceptibility and Cs-137 inventory variability as influenced by land use change and slope positions in a hilly, semiarid region of west-central Iran. J Appl Geophys 89:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rashed MN (2010) Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt. J Hazard Mater 178:739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ratha DS, Sahu BK (1993) Source and distribution of metals in urban soil of Bombay, India, using multivariate statistical techniques. Environ Geol 22:276–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singer MJ, Verousb KL, Fine P, Tenpas J (1996) A conceptual model for the enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in soils. Quat Int 34:243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Swan ARH, Sandilands M (1995) Introduction to geological data analysis USA. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  27. Taghipour M, Ayoubi S, Khadmei H (2011) Contribution of lithologic and anthropogenic factors to surface soil heavy metals in western Iran using multivariate geostatistical analyses. Soil Sedim Contam 28:921–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Varrica D, Dongarra G, Sabatino G, Monna F (2003) Inorganic geochemistry of roadway dust from the metropolitan area of Polermo. Environ Geol 44:222–230Google Scholar
  29. Wang XS, Qin Y, Chen YK (2006) Heavy meals in urban roadside soils, part 1: effect of particle size fractions on heavy metals partitioning. Environ Geol 50:1061–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang XS, Zhang P, Fu J, Zhou HY (2012) Association between Pb and Zn concentrations and magnetic properties in particle size fractions of urban soils. J Appl Geophy 86:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, College of AgricultureIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations