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Negatives and Positives: Contaminants and Other Stressors in Aquatic Ecosystems

Abstract

Published research is reviewed to provide examples of both positive and negative interactions of contaminants and: climate change; habitat change; invasive and introduced species; and, eutrophication including harmful algal blooms. None of these stressor interactions results solely in negative effects. Research must shift from examining contaminants or other stressors in isolation to considering potential positive and negative effects of interactions, with the ultimate goal of providing the necessary information for the effective management of ecosystem services.

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Acknowledgements

I thank Erin Bennett, Editor-in-Chief of Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, for encouraging me to write this paper. Editor-in-Chief comment: I would like to thank Dr. Wayne G. Landis (Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University) for preparing the Memoriam in this paper for Dr. Peter Chapman.

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Correspondence to Peter M. Chapman.

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In Memoriam: Peter M. Chapman Dr. Peter M. Chapman, author of this article, passed away on September 26, 2017. In a ground-breaking paper, Ed Long (Long and Chapman 1985) and he introduced the sediment quality triad. The sediment quality triad was one of the earliest examples of using a weight of evidence approach to the correspondence between chemical concentration and bioassay results to effects in infauna. The paper was a key in moving environmental toxicology from mere hazard assessment to an integration of exposure and effect for decision making that is the basis of ecological risk assessment. Dr. Chapman made important contributions to the study of metals in sediments and was a relentless advocate for the use of regression methods to describe exposure-response relationships. His interest in sediment toxicology continued throughout his career as evidenced by his recently published paper (Chapman 2016d) on when to either use or not use benthic organism gut contents to assess bioaccumulation. As a journal editor, he encouraged the publication of new methods, set up lively learned discourses, and was relentless in his search of accuracy and fairness. This paper illustrates those qualities.

Dr. Peter Michael Chapman is deceased.

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Chapman, P.M. Negatives and Positives: Contaminants and Other Stressors in Aquatic Ecosystems. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 100, 3–7 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-017-2229-9

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Keywords

  • Contamination
  • Climate change
  • Habitat change
  • Invasive species
  • Harmful algal blooms
  • Eutrophication
  • Ecosystem services