Skip to main content

Photoenhanced Toxicity of Weathered Crude Oil in Sediment and Water to Larval Zebrafish

Abstract

Solar radiation exposure can increase the toxicity of bioaccumulated oil compounds in a diversity of aquatic species. We investigated the photoenhanced toxicity of weathered South Louisiana crude oil in sediment and water accommodated fractions (WAF) to larval zebrafish. Larvae were first exposed for 24 h to one of six treatments: no oil (sediment or water), 7.5 g oil/kg sediment, oil-only WAF, oil WAF plus the dispersant Corexit 9500A, or dispersant alone. Larvae were then exposed to high or low levels of sunlight in control water for 3 or 3.5 h. Hydrocarbon concentrations were measured in exposure media, including alkanes, polycyclic aromatic compounds and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Significant phototoxicity was observed in larvae exposed to oiled sediment, oil-only WAF, and oil plus dispersant WAF. The results indicated that petroleum from the northern Gulf of Mexico can be phototoxic to larval fish exposed to oil in either the water column or sediment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Alloy M, Garner TR, Bridges K, Mansfield C, Carney M, Forth H, Krasnec M, Lay C, Takeshita R, Morris J, Bonnot S, Oris J, Roberts A (2017) Co-exposure to sunlight enhances the toxicity of naturally weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to early lifestage red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and speckled seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Environ Toxicol Chem 36:780–785

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Barron MG (2007) Sediment-associated phototoxicity to aquatic organisms. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 13:317–321

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Barron MG (2017) Photoenhanced toxicity of petroleum to aquatic invertebrates and fish. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 73:40–46

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Barron MG, Kaaihue L (2003) Critical evaluation of CROSERF test methods for oil dispersant toxicity testing under subarctic conditions. Mar Pollut Bull 46:1191–1199

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Barron MG, Little EE, Calfee RD, Diamond S (2000) Quantifying solar spectral irradiance in aquatic habitats for the assessment of photoenhanced toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:920–925

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Barron MG, Carls MG, Short JW, Rice SD (2003) Photoenhanced toxicity of aqueous phase and chemically dispersed weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil to Pacific herring eggs and larvae. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:650–660

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Boese BL, Ozretich RJ, Lamberson JO, Cole FA, Swartz RC, Ferraro SP (2000) Phototoxic evaluation of marine sediments collected from a PAH-contaminated site. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 38:274–282

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Davenport R, Spacie A (1991) Acute phototoxicity of harbor and tributary sediments from lower Lake Michigan. J Great Lakes Res 17:51–56

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Diamond SA, Milroy NJ, Mattson VR, Heinis LJ, Mount DR (2003) Photoactivated toxicity in amphipods collected from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:2752–2760

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Finch BE, Marzooghi S, Di Toro DM, Stubblefield WA (2017) Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 36:2640–2650

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hollert H, Keiter S, König N, Rudolf M, Ulrich M, Braunbeck T (2003) A new sediment contact test to assess particle-bound pollutants using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. J Soil Sed 3:197–207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Isogai S, Horiguchi M, Weinstein BM (2001) The vascular anatomy of the developing zebrafish: an atlas of embryonic and early larval development. Develop Biol 230:278–301

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Jung J-H, Hicken CE, Boyd D, Anulacion BF, Carls MG, Shim WJ, Incardona JP (2013) Geologically distinct crude oils cause a common cardiotoxicity syndrome in developing zebrafish. Chemosphere 91:1146–1155

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Monson PD, Ankley GT, Kosian PA (1995) Phototoxic response of Lumbriculus variegatus to sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:891–894

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Raimondo S, Jackson CR, Krzykwa J, Hemmer BL, Barron MG (2014) Developmental toxicity of Louisiana crude oiled sediment to zebrafish. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 108:258–264

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Roberts AP, Alloy MM, Oris JT (2017) Review of the photo-induced toxicity of environmental contaminants. Compara Biochem Physiol Part C: Toxicol Pharmacol 191:160–167

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Sweet LE, Magnuson J, Garner TR, Alloy MM, Stieglitz JD, Grosell M, Roberts AP (2017) Exposure to ultraviolet radiation late in development increases the toxicity of oil to mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos. Environ Toxicol 36:1592–1598

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Willis AM, Oris JT (2014) Acute photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics of single compounds and mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish. Environ Toxicol Chem 33:2018–2037

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Becky Hemmer for technical assistance, ALS Global (Life Sciences, Environmental) for chemical analyses, and Morgan Willming for review of a draft of the manuscript. The conclusions may not necessarily reflect the views of the EPA and no official endorsement should be inferred. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mace G. Barron.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2064 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Barron, M.G., Krzykwa, J., Lilavois, C.R. et al. Photoenhanced Toxicity of Weathered Crude Oil in Sediment and Water to Larval Zebrafish. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 100, 49–53 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-017-2228-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Oil
  • Zebrafish
  • Photoenhanced toxicity
  • Sediment